Next Article in Journal
Conversion of Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside to Deoxynivalenol during Chinese Steamed Bread Processing
Next Article in Special Issue
Gut-Derived Metabolites and Their Role in Immune Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Bacterial Toxins in the Lungs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Hypervolemia-Induced Immune Disturbances Do Not Involve IL-1ß but IL-6 and IL-10 Activation in Haemodialysis Patients
Review

Uremia-Associated Ageing of the Thymus and Adaptive Immune Responses

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rg5, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 29 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 3 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Dysfunction in Uremia)
Progressive loss of renal function is associated with a series of changes of the adaptive immune system which collectively constitute premature immunological ageing. This phenomenon contributes significantly to the mortality and morbidity of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In this review, the effect of ESRD on the T cell part of the adaptive immune system is highlighted. Naïve T cell lymphopenia, in combination with the expansion of highly differentiated memory T cells, are the hallmarks of immunological ageing. The decreased production of newly formed T cells by the thymus is critically involved. This affects both the CD4 and CD8 T cell compartment and may contribute to the expansion of memory T cells. The expanding populations of memory T cells have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, add to low-grade inflammation already present in ESRD patients and destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. The effect of loss of renal function on the thymus is not reversed after restoring renal function by kidney transplantation and constitutes a long-term mortality risk factor. Promising results from animal experiments have shown that rejuvenation of the thymus is a possibility, although not yet applicable in humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremia; chronic kidney disease; thymus; adaptive immunity; lymphopenia; immunological ageing uremia; chronic kidney disease; thymus; adaptive immunity; lymphopenia; immunological ageing
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Betjes, M.G. Uremia-Associated Ageing of the Thymus and Adaptive Immune Responses. Toxins 2020, 12, 224. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040224

AMA Style

Betjes MG. Uremia-Associated Ageing of the Thymus and Adaptive Immune Responses. Toxins. 2020; 12(4):224. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040224

Chicago/Turabian Style

Betjes, Michiel G. 2020. "Uremia-Associated Ageing of the Thymus and Adaptive Immune Responses" Toxins 12, no. 4: 224. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040224

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop