Next Article in Journal
Toxicity of Carlina Oxide—A Natural Polyacetylene from the Carlina acaulis Roots—In Vitro and in Vivo Study
Previous Article in Journal
Oral Charcoal Adsorbents Attenuate Neointima Formation of Arteriovenous Fistulas
Article

PGN and LTA from Staphylococcus aureus Induced Inflammation and Decreased Lactation through Regulating DNA Methylation and Histone H3 Acetylation in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Beibei District, Chongqing 400716, China
2
Institute for Herbivorous Livestock Research, Chongqing Academy of Animal Science, Chongqing 402460, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those two authors contribute equally to this study.
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are the most common pathogens of mastitis, and S. aureus generally causes subclinical mastitis which is more persistent and resistant to treatment. Peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are cell wall components of S. aureus. Although the roles of PGN and LTA in causing inflammation are well studied, the epigenetic mechanisms of the effects of PGN and LTA on the inflammation and lactation remain poorly understood. This study characterized the gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing and investigated DNA methylation and histone acetylation in relation to inflammation and lactation in the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T). The cells were cultured for 24 h with neither PGN nor LTA (CON), PGN (30 μg/mL), LTA (30 μg/mL), and PGN (30 μg/mL) + LTA (30 μg/mL), respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the expression of proinflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, and CXCL6 of the treatments increased in the following order: CON < PGN < LTA < PGN + LTA, and the DEGs mainly enriched on the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and chemokine signaling pathway. LTA and PGN + LTA induced hypomethylation of global DNA by suppressing DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. PGN and LTA, alone or combined, decreased the mRNA expression of casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) and the expression of two caseins (CSN2 and CSN3), and reduced histone H3 acetylation by suppressing histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity and promoting histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Collectively, this study revealed that PGN and LTA induced inflammation probably due to decreasing DNA methylation through regulating DNMT activity, and decreased lactation possibly through reducing histone H3 acetylation by regulating HAT and HDAC activity in bovine mammary epithelial cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptidoglycan; lipoteichoic acid; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; inflammation; lactation; bovine mammary epithelial cells peptidoglycan; lipoteichoic acid; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; inflammation; lactation; bovine mammary epithelial cells
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, Y.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.; Dong, X.; Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Dong, G. PGN and LTA from Staphylococcus aureus Induced Inflammation and Decreased Lactation through Regulating DNA Methylation and Histone H3 Acetylation in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells. Toxins 2020, 12, 238. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040238

AMA Style

Wu Y, Chen J, Sun Y, Dong X, Wang Z, Chen J, Dong G. PGN and LTA from Staphylococcus aureus Induced Inflammation and Decreased Lactation through Regulating DNA Methylation and Histone H3 Acetylation in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells. Toxins. 2020; 12(4):238. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040238

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Yongjiang, Jingbo Chen, Yawang Sun, Xianwen Dong, Zili Wang, Juncai Chen, and Guozhong Dong. 2020. "PGN and LTA from Staphylococcus aureus Induced Inflammation and Decreased Lactation through Regulating DNA Methylation and Histone H3 Acetylation in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells" Toxins 12, no. 4: 238. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040238

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop