Next Article in Journal
Phylogenomic Analysis of Secondary Metabolism in the Toxic Cyanobacterial Genera Anabaena, Dolichospermum and Aphanizomenon
Next Article in Special Issue
Chronic Kidney Disease-Associated Immune Dysfunctions: Impact of Protein-Bound Uremic Retention Solutes on Immune Cells
Previous Article in Journal
CRISPR-Mediated Knockout of the ABCC2 Gene in Ostrinia furnacalis Confers High-Level Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Fa Toxin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Uremia-Associated Ageing of the Thymus and Adaptive Immune Responses
Review

Gut-Derived Metabolites and Their Role in Immune Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease

1
Nephrology Division, Ghent University Hospital and Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
First Division of Nephrology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 11 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Dysfunction in Uremia)
Several of the uremic toxins, which are difficult to remove by dialysis, originate from the gut bacterial metabolism. This opens opportunities for novel targets trying to decrease circulating levels of these toxins and their pathophysiological effects. The current review focuses on immunomodulatory effects of these toxins both at their side of origin and in the circulation. In the gut end products of the bacterial metabolism such as p-cresol, trimethylamine and H2S affect the intestinal barrier structure and function while in the circulation the related uremic toxins stimulate cells of the immune system. Both conditions contribute to the pro-inflammatory status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Generation and/or absorption of these toxin precursors could be targeted to decrease plasma levels of their respective uremic toxins and to reduce micro-inflammation in CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremic toxins; gut; chronic kidney disease; immune uremic toxins; gut; chronic kidney disease; immune
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Glorieux, G.; Gryp, T.; Perna, A. Gut-Derived Metabolites and Their Role in Immune Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins 2020, 12, 245. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040245

AMA Style

Glorieux G, Gryp T, Perna A. Gut-Derived Metabolites and Their Role in Immune Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease. Toxins. 2020; 12(4):245. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040245

Chicago/Turabian Style

Glorieux, Griet, Tessa Gryp, and Alessandra Perna. 2020. "Gut-Derived Metabolites and Their Role in Immune Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease" Toxins 12, no. 4: 245. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12040245

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop