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Review

Pest Management and Ochratoxin A Contamination in Grapes: A Review

1
Department of Sustainable Crop Production (DI.PRO.VE.S.), Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29100 Piacenza, Italy
2
School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
3
School of Plant Sciences, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Agricultural Zoology and Entomology, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 29 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most toxic member of ochratoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The most relevant species involved in OTA production in grapes is Aspergillus carbonarius. Berry infection by A. carbonarius is enhanced by damage to the skin caused by abiotic and biotic factors. Insect pests play a major role in European vineyards, and Lepidopteran species such as the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana are undoubtedly crucial. New scenarios are also emerging due to the introduction and spread of allochthonous pests as well as climate change. Such pests may be involved in the dissemination of OTA producing fungi even if confirmation is still lacking and further studies are needed. An OTA predicting model is available, but it should be integrated with models aimed at forecasting L. botrana phenology and demography in order to improve model reliability. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lobesia botrana; forecasting models; mycotoxins; insects; black aspergilli; Aspergillus carbonariusOTA Lobesia botrana; forecasting models; mycotoxins; insects; black aspergilli; Aspergillus carbonariusOTA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mondani, L.; Palumbo, R.; Tsitsigiannis, D.; Perdikis, D.; Mazzoni, E.; Battilani, P. Pest Management and Ochratoxin A Contamination in Grapes: A Review. Toxins 2020, 12, 303. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050303

AMA Style

Mondani L, Palumbo R, Tsitsigiannis D, Perdikis D, Mazzoni E, Battilani P. Pest Management and Ochratoxin A Contamination in Grapes: A Review. Toxins. 2020; 12(5):303. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050303

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mondani, Letizia, Roberta Palumbo, Dimitrios Tsitsigiannis, Dionysios Perdikis, Emanuele Mazzoni, and Paola Battilani. 2020. "Pest Management and Ochratoxin A Contamination in Grapes: A Review" Toxins 12, no. 5: 303. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050303

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