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Article

Detection of Chaetomium globosum, Ch. cochliodes and Ch. rectangulare during the Diversity Tracking of Mycotoxin-Producing Chaetomium-like Isolates Obtained in Buildings in Finland

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Aalto University, Box 12100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
3
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution.
Received: 14 June 2020 / Revised: 4 July 2020 / Accepted: 6 July 2020 / Published: 8 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
The diversity of Chaetomium-like isolates in buildings in Finland is poorly documented. This paper describes a set of methods for rapid diversity tracking of 42 indoor Chaetomium-like isolates. These isolates were categorized based on their fluorescence emission, ascomatal hair morphology, responses in three bioassays and resistance/sensitivity to the wetting agent Genapol X-080. Thirty-nine toxigenic isolates were identified [Ch. globosum (n = 35), Ch. cochliodes (n = 2) and Ch. rectangulare (n = 2)]. These isolates were identified down to the species level by tef1α gene sequencing. The major toxic substances in the ethanol extracts of the Ch. globosum and Ch. cochliodes strains were chaetoglobosin, chaetoviridin A and C, chaetomugilin D and chaetomin, identified based on HPLC-UV and mass spectrometry data (MS and MS/MS). Ethanol extracts from pure Ch. globosum cultures exhibited a toxicological profile in the boar sperm motility inhibition assay (BSMI), sperm membrane integrity damage assay (SMID) and inhibition of cell proliferation (ICP) assay, similar to that exhibited by pure chaetoglobosin A. Overall, differences in fluorescence, morphology, toxicity profile, mycotoxin production and sensitivity to chemicals were consistent with those in tef1α sequencing results for species identification. The results indicate the presence of Ch. cochliodes and Ch. rectangulare in Finnish buildings, representing a new finding. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chaetomium globosum; Chaetomium cochliodes; Chaetomium rectangulare; mycotoxin; chaetoglobosin; chaetomin; chaetoviridin A and C; chaetomugilin D; indoor mold; fluorescence Chaetomium globosum; Chaetomium cochliodes; Chaetomium rectangulare; mycotoxin; chaetoglobosin; chaetomin; chaetoviridin A and C; chaetomugilin D; indoor mold; fluorescence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salo, J.M.; Kedves, O.; Mikkola, R.; Kredics, L.; Andersson, M.A.; Kurnitski, J.; Salonen, H. Detection of Chaetomium globosum, Ch. cochliodes and Ch. rectangulare during the Diversity Tracking of Mycotoxin-Producing Chaetomium-like Isolates Obtained in Buildings in Finland. Toxins 2020, 12, 443. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070443

AMA Style

Salo JM, Kedves O, Mikkola R, Kredics L, Andersson MA, Kurnitski J, Salonen H. Detection of Chaetomium globosum, Ch. cochliodes and Ch. rectangulare during the Diversity Tracking of Mycotoxin-Producing Chaetomium-like Isolates Obtained in Buildings in Finland. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):443. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salo, Johanna M., Orsolya Kedves, Raimo Mikkola, László Kredics, Maria A. Andersson, Jarek Kurnitski, and Heidi Salonen. 2020. "Detection of Chaetomium globosum, Ch. cochliodes and Ch. rectangulare during the Diversity Tracking of Mycotoxin-Producing Chaetomium-like Isolates Obtained in Buildings in Finland" Toxins 12, no. 7: 443. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070443

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