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Article

Toxic Potential and Metabolic Profiling of Two Australian Biotypes of the Invasive Plant Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.)

1
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
2
The Centre for Crop Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
3
Weeds Research Unit, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
4
Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (Charles Sturt University and NSW Department of Primary Industries), School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
5
School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2650, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2020 / Revised: 8 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 10 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Functional Characterization of Plant Toxins)
Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) is an invasive plant species in around 50 countries and a ‘Weed of National Significance’ in Australia. This study investigated the relative toxicity of the leaf, shoot and root extracts of two geographically separate and morphologically distinct biotypes of parthenium weed in Queensland, Australia. Parthenium weed exhibited higher phytotoxic, cytotoxic and photocytotoxic activity in leaf tissue extracts in contrast to shoot and root. The germination and seedling growth of a dicot species (garden cress) were inhibited more than those of a monocot species (annual ryegrass) using a phytotoxicity bioassay. The cytotoxicity of leaf extracts was assessed in a mouse fibroblast cell suspension assay and increased under high ultraviolet A(UV-A) radiation. A major secondary metabolite, parthenin, was found in abundance in leaf extracts and was positively correlated with cytotoxicity but not with photocytotoxicity or phytotoxicity. Ambrosin and chlorogenic acid were also detected and were positively correlated with germination inhibition and the inhibition of radicle elongation, respectively. In addition, other currently unidentified compounds in the leaf extracts were positively correlated with phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity and photocytotoxicity with two to three molecules strongly correlated in each case. Both parthenium weed biotypes investigated did not differ with respect to their relative toxicity, despite their reported differences in invasive potential in the field. This suggests that secondary chemistry plays a limited role in their invasion success. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parthenium hysterophorus; allelopathy; biological invasions; cytotoxicity; parthenin; metabolomics Parthenium hysterophorus; allelopathy; biological invasions; cytotoxicity; parthenin; metabolomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bajwa, A.A.; Weston, P.A.; Gurusinghe, S.; Latif, S.; Adkins, S.W.; Weston, L.A. Toxic Potential and Metabolic Profiling of Two Australian Biotypes of the Invasive Plant Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Toxins 2020, 12, 447. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070447

AMA Style

Bajwa AA, Weston PA, Gurusinghe S, Latif S, Adkins SW, Weston LA. Toxic Potential and Metabolic Profiling of Two Australian Biotypes of the Invasive Plant Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Toxins. 2020; 12(7):447. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070447

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bajwa, Ali A., Paul A. Weston, Saliya Gurusinghe, Sajid Latif, Steve W. Adkins, and Leslie A. Weston 2020. "Toxic Potential and Metabolic Profiling of Two Australian Biotypes of the Invasive Plant Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.)" Toxins 12, no. 7: 447. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070447

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