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Review

Secondary Metabolites of Lasiodiplodia theobromae: Distribution, Chemical Diversity, Bioactivity, and Implications of Their Occurrence

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples ‘Federico II’, 80126 Naples, Italy
2
CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
BAT Center-Interuniversity Center for Studies on Bioinspired Agro-Environmental Technology, University of Naples ‘Federico II’, 80126 Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytopathogenic Fungi and Toxicity)
Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a plant pathogenic fungus from the family Botryosphaeriaceae that is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been associated with many hosts, causing diverse diseases and being responsible for serious damages on economically important crops. A diverse array of bioactive low molecular weight compounds has been described as being produced by L. theobromae cultures. In this review, the existing literature on secondary metabolites of L. theobromae, their bioactivity, and the implications of their occurrence are compiled. Moreover, the effects of abiotic factors (e.g., temperature, nutrient availability) on secondary metabolites production are highlighted, and possible avenues for future research are presented. Currently, a total of 134 chemically defined compounds belonging to the classes of secondary metabolites and fatty acids have been reported from over 30 L. theobromae isolates. Compounds reported include cyclohexenes and cyclohexenones, indoles, jasmonates, lactones, melleins, phenols, and others. Most of the existing bioactivity studies of L. theobromae metabolites have assessed their potential phytotoxic, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. In fact, its host adaptability and its ability to cause diseases in plants as well as in humans may be related to the capacity to produce bioactive compounds directly involved in host–fungus interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Botryodiplodia theobromae; Botryosphaeria rhodina; natural products; bioactivity Botryodiplodia theobromae; Botryosphaeria rhodina; natural products; bioactivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvatore, M.M.; Alves, A.; Andolfi, A. Secondary Metabolites of Lasiodiplodia theobromae: Distribution, Chemical Diversity, Bioactivity, and Implications of Their Occurrence. Toxins 2020, 12, 457. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070457

AMA Style

Salvatore MM, Alves A, Andolfi A. Secondary Metabolites of Lasiodiplodia theobromae: Distribution, Chemical Diversity, Bioactivity, and Implications of Their Occurrence. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):457. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070457

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salvatore, Maria M.; Alves, Artur; Andolfi, Anna. 2020. "Secondary Metabolites of Lasiodiplodia theobromae: Distribution, Chemical Diversity, Bioactivity, and Implications of Their Occurrence" Toxins 12, no. 7: 457. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070457

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