Next Article in Journal
Mycotoxins and the Enteric Nervous System
Previous Article in Journal
Cytotoxicity of the Sesquiterpene Lactones, Ivalin and Parthenolide in Murine Muscle Cell Lines and Their Effect on Desmin, a Cytoskeletal Intermediate Filament
Article

Qualifying the T-2 Toxin-Degrading Properties of Seven Microbes with Zebrafish Embryo Microinjection Method

1
Department of Aquaculture, Institute for Conservation of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
2
Department of Environmental Safety and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Conservation of Natural Resources, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
3
Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 18 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
T-2 mycotoxin degradation and detoxification efficiency of seven bacterial strains were investigated with zebrafish microinjection method in three steps ((1) determination of mycotoxin toxicity baseline, (2) examination of bacterial metabolites toxicity, (3) identification of degradation products toxicity). Toxicity of T-2 was used as a baseline of toxic effects, bacterial metabolites of strains as control of bacterial toxicity and degradation products of toxin as control of biodegradation were injected into one-cell stage embryos in the same experiment. The results of in vivo tests were checked and supplemented with UHPLC-MS/MS measurement of T-2 concentration of samples. Results showed that the Rhodococcus erythropolis NI1 strain was the only one of the seven tested (R. gordoniae AK38, R. ruber N361, R. coprophilus N774, R. rhodochrous NI2, R. globerulus N58, Gordonia paraffinivorans NZS14), which was appropriated to criteria all aspects (bacterial and degradation metabolites of strains caused lower toxicity effects than T-2, and strains were able to degrade T-2 mycotoxin). Bacterial and degradation metabolites of the NI1 strain caused slight lethal and sublethal effects on zebrafish embryos at 72- and 120-h postinjection. Results demonstrated that the three-step zebrafish microinjection method is well-suited to the determination and classification of different bacterial strains by their mycotoxin degradation and detoxification efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trichothecene; biodegradation; metabolites; phenotype; Rhodococcus erythropolis Trichothecene; biodegradation; metabolites; phenotype; Rhodococcus erythropolis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Garai, E.; Risa, A.; Varga, E.; Cserháti, M.; Kriszt, B.; Urbányi, B.; Csenki, Z. Qualifying the T-2 Toxin-Degrading Properties of Seven Microbes with Zebrafish Embryo Microinjection Method. Toxins 2020, 12, 460. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070460

AMA Style

Garai E, Risa A, Varga E, Cserháti M, Kriszt B, Urbányi B, Csenki Z. Qualifying the T-2 Toxin-Degrading Properties of Seven Microbes with Zebrafish Embryo Microinjection Method. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):460. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Garai, Edina, Anita Risa, Emese Varga, Mátyás Cserháti, Balázs Kriszt, Béla Urbányi, and Zsolt Csenki. 2020. "Qualifying the T-2 Toxin-Degrading Properties of Seven Microbes with Zebrafish Embryo Microinjection Method" Toxins 12, no. 7: 460. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070460

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop