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Mycotoxins and the Enteric Nervous System

1
Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego Str. 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Clinical Diagnostics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 14, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 17 July 2020 / Published: 19 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins Occurence in Feed and Their Influence on Animal Health)
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various fungal species. They are commonly found in a wide range of agricultural products. Mycotoxins contained in food enter living organisms and may have harmful effects on many internal organs and systems. The gastrointestinal tract, which first comes into contact with mycotoxins present in food, is particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of these toxins. One of the lesser-known aspects of the impact of mycotoxins on the gastrointestinal tract is the influence of these substances on gastrointestinal innervation. Therefore, the present study is the first review of current knowledge concerning the influence of mycotoxins on the enteric nervous system, which plays an important role, not only in almost all regulatory processes within the gastrointestinal tract, but also in adaptive and protective reactions in response to pathological and toxic factors in food. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; enteric nervous system; gastrointestinal tract; mammals; animal pathology; intestines; toxins; feed mycotoxins; enteric nervous system; gastrointestinal tract; mammals; animal pathology; intestines; toxins; feed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gonkowski, S.; Gajęcka, M.; Makowska, K. Mycotoxins and the Enteric Nervous System. Toxins 2020, 12, 461. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070461

AMA Style

Gonkowski S, Gajęcka M, Makowska K. Mycotoxins and the Enteric Nervous System. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):461. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070461

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gonkowski, Sławomir, Magdalena Gajęcka, and Krystyna Makowska. 2020. "Mycotoxins and the Enteric Nervous System" Toxins 12, no. 7: 461. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070461

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