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Article

Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Toxic Alexandrium catenella is Intertwined with Photosynthesis and Energy Production

1
The Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
2
Department of Science, School of Science and Technology, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 25 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
To investigate the mechanism for the production of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) in toxic dinoflagellates, with a 2D-gel based approach, we had made two sets of proteomic comparisons: (a) between a toxic Alexandrium catenella (AC-T) and a phylogenetically closely related non-toxic strain (AC-N), (b) between toxic AC-T grown in a medium with 10% normal amount of phosphate (AC-T-10%P) known to induce higher toxicity and AC-T grown in normal medium. We found that photosynthesis and energy production related proteins were up-regulated in AC-T when compared to AC-N. However, the same group of proteins was down-regulated in AC-T-10%P when compared to normal AC-T. Examining the relationship of photosynthesis and toxin content of AC-T upon continuous photoperiod experiment revealed that while growth and associated toxin content increased after 8 days of continuous light, toxin content maintained constant when cells were shifted from continuous light to continuous dark for 3 days. This emphasized the cruciality of light availability on toxin biosynthesis in AC-T, while another light-independent mechanism may be responsible for higher toxicity in AC-T-10%P compared to normal AC-T. Taken all together, it is believed that the interplay between “illumination”, “photosynthesis”, “phosphate availability”, and “toxin production” is much more complicated than what we had previously anticipated. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alexandrium catenella; paralytic shellfish toxins; PSTs; light availability; phosphate limitation; proteomics Alexandrium catenella; paralytic shellfish toxins; PSTs; light availability; phosphate limitation; proteomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tse, S.P.-k.; Lee, F.W.-f.; Mak, D.Y.-l.; Kong, H.-k.; Chan, K.K.-y.; Lo, P.-y.; Lo, S.C.-l. Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Toxic Alexandrium catenella is Intertwined with Photosynthesis and Energy Production. Toxins 2020, 12, 477. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080477

AMA Style

Tse SP-k, Lee FW-f, Mak DY-l, Kong H-k, Chan KK-y, Lo P-y, Lo SC-l. Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Toxic Alexandrium catenella is Intertwined with Photosynthesis and Energy Production. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):477. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080477

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tse, Sirius P.-k., Fred W.-f. Lee, Daniel Y.-l. Mak, Hang-kin Kong, Kenrick K.-y. Chan, Pak-yeung Lo, and Samuel C.-l. Lo 2020. "Production of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in Toxic Alexandrium catenella is Intertwined with Photosynthesis and Energy Production" Toxins 12, no. 8: 477. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080477

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