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Article

Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Carbon Dioxide on Fungal Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Acclimatised Isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum

1
Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Borno State 600230, Nigeria
3
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Laboratory of Climate-Smart Food Crop Production, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43000 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
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Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad-Lorenz-Str. 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2020 / Revised: 28 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Relation to Climate Change)
Climate change is primarily manifested by elevated temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and is projected to provide suitable cultivation grounds for pests and pathogens in the otherwise unsuitable regions. The impacts of climate change have been predicted in many parts of the world, which could threaten global food safety and food security. The aim of the present work was therefore to examine the interacting effects of water activity (aw) (0.92, 0.95, 0.98 aw), CO2 (400, 800, 1200 ppm) and temperature (30, 35 °C and 30, 33 °C for Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum, respectively) on fungal growth and mycotoxin production of acclimatised isolates of F. verticillioides and F. graminearum isolated from maize. To determine fungal growth, the colony diameters were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. The mycotoxins produced were quantified using a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF-MS) combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system. For F. verticillioides, the optimum conditions for growth of fumonisin B1 (FB1), and fumonisin B2 (FB2) were 30 °C + 0.98 aw + 400 ppm CO2. These conditions were also optimum for F. graminearum growth, and zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production. Since 30 °C and 400 ppm CO2 were the baseline treatments, it was hence concluded that the elevated temperature and CO2 levels tested did not seem to significantly impact fungal growth and mycotoxin production of acclimatised Fusarium isolates. To the best of our knowledge thus far, the present work described for the first time the effects of simulated climate change conditions on fungal growth and mycotoxin production of acclimatised isolates of F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; mycotoxins; aw; CO2; temperature; F. verticillioides; F. graminearum climate change; mycotoxins; aw; CO2; temperature; F. verticillioides; F. graminearum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peter Mshelia, L.; Selamat, J.; Iskandar Putra Samsudin, N.; Rafii, M.Y.; Abdul Mutalib, N.-A.; Nordin, N.; Berthiller, F. Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Carbon Dioxide on Fungal Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Acclimatised Isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum. Toxins 2020, 12, 478. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080478

AMA Style

Peter Mshelia L, Selamat J, Iskandar Putra Samsudin N, Rafii MY, Abdul Mutalib N-A, Nordin N, Berthiller F. Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Carbon Dioxide on Fungal Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Acclimatised Isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):478. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080478

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peter Mshelia, Ladi, Jinap Selamat, Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin, Mohd Y. Rafii, Noor-Azira Abdul Mutalib, Noordiana Nordin, and Franz Berthiller. 2020. "Effect of Temperature, Water Activity and Carbon Dioxide on Fungal Growth and Mycotoxin Production of Acclimatised Isolates of Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum" Toxins 12, no. 8: 478. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080478

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