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Review

Warning on False or True Morels and Button Mushrooms with Potential Toxicity Linked to Hydrazinic Toxins: An Update

1
EFSN, Pôle de Neurologie, CHUGA, Grenoble University Hospital, 38000 Grenoble, France
2
Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, Unité de Recherche Aliments Bioprocédés Toxicologie Environnements (ABTE) EA 4651, 14000 Caen, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Toxins and the Brain)
Recently, consumption of the gyromitrin-containing neurotoxic mushroom Gyromitra sp. (false morel), as gourmet food was hypothesized to play a role in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genesis. The present review analyses recent data on edibility and toxicity of false and true morels and Agaricus spp. Controversy about the toxic status of Gyromitra esculenta was due to variable toxin susceptibility within consumers. We suggest that Verpa bohemica, another false morel, is also inedible. We found a temporary neurological syndrome (NS) with cerebellar signs associated with high consumption of fresh or dried true morels Morchella sp. After ingestion of crude or poorly cooked fresh or dried morels, a gastrointestinal “haemolytic” syndrome was also observed. Agaritine, a water soluble hydrazinic toxin closely related to gyromitrin is present along with metabolites including diazonium ions and free radicals, in Agaricus spp. and A. bisporus, the button mushroom, and in mice after ingestion. It is a potential weak carcinogen in mice, but although no data are available for humans, a lifetime low cumulative extra cancer risk in humans can be estimated to be about 10−5. To conclude, a safety measure is to avoid consuming any true morels or button mushrooms when crude or poorly cooked, fresh or dried. View Full-Text
Keywords: gyromitrin; true morels; button mushroom; agaritine; safe consumption gyromitrin; true morels; button mushroom; agaritine; safe consumption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lagrange, E.; Vernoux, J.-P. Warning on False or True Morels and Button Mushrooms with Potential Toxicity Linked to Hydrazinic Toxins: An Update. Toxins 2020, 12, 482. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080482

AMA Style

Lagrange E, Vernoux J-P. Warning on False or True Morels and Button Mushrooms with Potential Toxicity Linked to Hydrazinic Toxins: An Update. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):482. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080482

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lagrange, Emmeline; Vernoux, Jean-Paul. 2020. "Warning on False or True Morels and Button Mushrooms with Potential Toxicity Linked to Hydrazinic Toxins: An Update" Toxins 12, no. 8: 482. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080482

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