Next Article in Journal
Rectus Femoris Characteristics in Post Stroke Spasticity: Clinical Implications from Ultrasonographic Evaluation
Previous Article in Journal
Mycotoxins in Feed and Food and the Role of Ozone in Their Detoxification and Degradation: An Update
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cloning and Expression of Genes for Biodegrading Nodularin by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05
Article

In Vivo Evaluation of the Chronic Oral Toxicity of the Marine Toxin Palytoxin

Departamento de Farmacoloxía, Farmacia e Tecnoloxía Farmacéutica, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 June 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 30 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
Palytoxin (PLTX) is one of the most poisonous substances known to date and considered as an emergent toxin in Europe. Palytoxin binds to the Na+-K+ ATPase, converting the enzyme in a permeant cation channel. This toxin is known for causing human fatal intoxications associated with the consumption of contaminated fish and crustaceans such as crabs, groupers, mackerel, and parrotfish. Human intoxications by PLTX after consumption of contaminated fishery products are a serious health issue and can be fatal. Different reports have previously explored the acute oral toxicity of PLTX in mice. Although the presence of palytoxin in marine products is currently not regulated in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority expressed its opinion on PLTX and demanded assessment for chronic toxicity studies of this potent marine toxin. In this study, the chronic toxicity of palytoxin was evaluated after oral administration to mice by gavage during a 28-day period. After chronic exposure of mice to the toxin, a lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 0.44 µg/kg of PLTX and a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of 0.03 µg/kg for repeated daily oral administration of PLTX were determined. These results indicate a much higher chronic toxicity of PLTX and a lower NOAEL than that previously described in shorter treatment periods, pointing out the need to further reevaluate the levels of this compound in marine products. View Full-Text
Keywords: palytoxin; marine toxins; in vivo toxicity; EFSA; risk assessment; sodium-potassium ATPase; LD50; NOAEL palytoxin; marine toxins; in vivo toxicity; EFSA; risk assessment; sodium-potassium ATPase; LD50; NOAEL
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Boente-Juncal, A.; Raposo-García, S.; Vale, C.; Louzao, M.C.; Otero, P.; Botana, L.M. In Vivo Evaluation of the Chronic Oral Toxicity of the Marine Toxin Palytoxin. Toxins 2020, 12, 489. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080489

AMA Style

Boente-Juncal A, Raposo-García S, Vale C, Louzao MC, Otero P, Botana LM. In Vivo Evaluation of the Chronic Oral Toxicity of the Marine Toxin Palytoxin. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):489. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080489

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boente-Juncal, Andrea, Sandra Raposo-García, Carmen Vale, M. C. Louzao, Paz Otero, and Luis M. Botana 2020. "In Vivo Evaluation of the Chronic Oral Toxicity of the Marine Toxin Palytoxin" Toxins 12, no. 8: 489. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080489

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop