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Review

OMICs Approaches in Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins Research

1
CIIMAR-Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, 4450–208 Porto, Portugal
2
ESS-P.Porto, School of Health, Polytechnic Institute of Porto. Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 400, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
3
LEAF-Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
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i3S–Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
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Ipatimup—Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
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Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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IPMA—Instituto Português do Mar da Atmosfera, Rua Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho, 6, 1495-006 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 June 2020 / Revised: 22 July 2020 / Accepted: 28 July 2020 / Published: 31 July 2020
Diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) are among the most prevalent marine toxins in Europe’s and in other temperate coastal regions. These toxins are produced by several dinoflagellate species; however, the contamination of the marine trophic chain is often attributed to species of the genus Dinophysis. This group of toxins, constituted by okadaic acid (OA) and analogous molecules (dinophysistoxins, DTXs), are highly harmful to humans, causing severe poisoning symptoms caused by the ingestion of contaminated seafood. Knowledge on the mode of action and toxicology of OA and the chemical characterization and accumulation of DSTs in seafood species (bivalves, gastropods and crustaceans) has significantly contributed to understand the impacts of these toxins in humans. Considerable information is however missing, particularly at the molecular and metabolic levels involving toxin uptake, distribution, compartmentalization and biotransformation and the interaction of DSTs with aquatic organisms. Recent contributions to the knowledge of DSTs arise from transcriptomics and proteomics research. Indeed, OMICs constitute a research field dedicated to the systematic analysis on the organisms’ metabolisms. The methodologies used in OMICs are also highly effective to identify critical metabolic pathways affecting the physiology of the organisms. In this review, we analyze the main contributions provided so far by OMICs to DSTs research and discuss the prospects of OMICs with regard to the DSTs toxicology and the significance of these toxins to public health, food safety and aquaculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: diarrhetic shellfish toxins; aquatic contamination; mechanisms of toxicity; risk assessment; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics diarrhetic shellfish toxins; aquatic contamination; mechanisms of toxicity; risk assessment; transcriptomics; proteomics; metabolomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, A.; Freitas, M.; de Almeida, A.M.; Martins, J.C.; Domínguez-Pérez, D.; Osório, H.; Vasconcelos, V.; Reis Costa, P. OMICs Approaches in Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins Research. Toxins 2020, 12, 493. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080493

AMA Style

Campos A, Freitas M, de Almeida AM, Martins JC, Domínguez-Pérez D, Osório H, Vasconcelos V, Reis Costa P. OMICs Approaches in Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins Research. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):493. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080493

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campos, Alexandre, Marisa Freitas, André M. de Almeida, José C. Martins, Dany Domínguez-Pérez, Hugo Osório, Vitor Vasconcelos, and Pedro Reis Costa. 2020. "OMICs Approaches in Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins Research" Toxins 12, no. 8: 493. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080493

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