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Review

Quorum Sensing and Toxin Production in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis: Pathogenesis and Paradox

by 1 and 1,2,3,4,5,*
1
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
3
Vanderbilt Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
5
Vanderbilt Institute for Infection, Immunology, and Inflammation (VI4), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: Promoter or Handicap during Infection)
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen capable of infecting nearly every vertebrate organ. Among these tissues, invasive infection of bone (osteomyelitis) is particularly common and induces high morbidity. Treatment of osteomyelitis is notoriously difficult and often requires debridement of diseased bone in conjunction with prolonged antibiotic treatment to resolve infection. During osteomyelitis, S. aureus forms characteristic multicellular microcolonies in distinct niches within bone. Virulence and metabolic responses within these multicellular microcolonies are coordinated, in part, by quorum sensing via the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus, which allows staphylococcal populations to produce toxins and adapt in response to bacterial density. During osteomyelitis, the Agr system significantly contributes to dysregulation of skeletal homeostasis and disease severity but may also paradoxically inhibit persistence in the host. Moreover, the Agr system is subject to complex crosstalk with other S. aureus regulatory systems, including SaeRS and SrrAB, which can significantly impact the progression of osteomyelitis. The objective of this review is to highlight Agr regulation, its implications on toxin production, factors that affect Agr activation, and the potential paradoxical influences of Agr regulation on disease progression during osteomyelitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: osteomyelitis; Staphylococcus aureus; toxin; accessory gene regulator; quorum; virulence; infectious; pathogenesis; bone osteomyelitis; Staphylococcus aureus; toxin; accessory gene regulator; quorum; virulence; infectious; pathogenesis; bone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Butrico, C.E.; Cassat, J.E. Quorum Sensing and Toxin Production in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis: Pathogenesis and Paradox. Toxins 2020, 12, 516. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080516

AMA Style

Butrico CE, Cassat JE. Quorum Sensing and Toxin Production in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis: Pathogenesis and Paradox. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):516. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080516

Chicago/Turabian Style

Butrico, Casey E., and James E. Cassat 2020. "Quorum Sensing and Toxin Production in Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis: Pathogenesis and Paradox" Toxins 12, no. 8: 516. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080516

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