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Article

Varying Protein Levels Influence Metabolomics and the Gut Microbiome in Healthy Adult Dogs

1
Pet Nutrition Center, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc., Topeka, KS 66617, USA
2
Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 10 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for the Reduction of Uremic Toxins)
The optimal ranges of protein for healthy adult dogs are not known. This study evaluated the impact of long-term consumption of foods containing low, medium, and high levels of protein on serum, urine, and fecal metabolites, and gut microbiome in beagles. Following maintenance on a prefeed food for 14 days, dogs (15 neutered males, 15 spayed females, aged 2–9 years, mean initial weight 11.3 kg) consumed the low (18.99%, dry matter basis), medium (25.34%), or high (45.77%) protein foods, each for 90 days, in a William’s Latin Square Design sequence. In serum and/or urine, metabolites associated with inflammation (9,10-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid (DiHOME)), 12,13-DiHOME) and kidney dysfunction (urea, 5-hydroxyindole sulfate, 7-hydroxyindole sulfate, p-cresol sulfate) increased with higher protein levels in food, while one-carbon pathway metabolites (betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine) decreased. Fecal pH increased with protein consumed, and levels of beneficial indoles and short-chain fatty acids decreased while branched-chain fatty acids increased. Beta diversity of the fecal microbiome was significantly different, with increased abundances of proteolytic bacteria with higher protein food. Feeding dogs a high amount of protein leads to a shift to proteolytic gut bacteria, higher fecal pH, and is associated with increased levels of metabolites linked with inflammation and kidney dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: canine; protein levels; plasma; feces; urine; metabolomics; uremic toxins; microbiome; fecal pH; proteolysis canine; protein levels; plasma; feces; urine; metabolomics; uremic toxins; microbiome; fecal pH; proteolysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ephraim, E.; Cochrane, C.-Y.; Jewell, D.E. Varying Protein Levels Influence Metabolomics and the Gut Microbiome in Healthy Adult Dogs. Toxins 2020, 12, 517. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080517

AMA Style

Ephraim E, Cochrane C-Y, Jewell DE. Varying Protein Levels Influence Metabolomics and the Gut Microbiome in Healthy Adult Dogs. Toxins. 2020; 12(8):517. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080517

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ephraim, Eden, Chun-Yen Cochrane, and Dennis E. Jewell 2020. "Varying Protein Levels Influence Metabolomics and the Gut Microbiome in Healthy Adult Dogs" Toxins 12, no. 8: 517. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12080517

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