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Review

Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxins and Their Detection in the Dairy Industry and Mastitis

1
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15898 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Science, School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
5
Department of Food Technology, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Marine Research Institute (IIM), 36208 Vigo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 July 2020 / Revised: 9 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: Promoter or Handicap during Infection)
Staphylococcus aureus constitutes a major food-borne pathogen, as well as one of the main causative agents of mastitis in dairy ruminants. This pathogen can produce a variety of extracellular toxins; these include the shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), exfoliative toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), hemolysins, and leukocidins. S. aureus expresses many virulence proteins, involved in evading the host defenses, hence facilitating microbial colonization of the mammary glands of the animals. In addition, S. aureus exotoxins play a role in the development of both skin infections and mastitis. Indeed, if these toxins remain in dairy products for human consumption, they can cause staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) outbreaks. As a result, there is a need for procedures to identify the presence of exotoxins in human food, and the methods used must be fast, sensitive, reliable, and accurate. It is also essential to determine the best medical therapy for human patients suffering from S. aureus infections, as well as establishing the relevant veterinary treatment for infected ruminants, to avoid economic losses in the dairy industry. This review summarizes the role of S. aureus toxins in the development of mastitis in ruminants, their negative effects in the food and dairy industries, and the different methods used for the identification of these toxins in food destined for human consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; exotoxins; mastitis; Staphylococcus aureus detection; staphylococcal food poisoning; food-borne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus; exotoxins; mastitis; Staphylococcus aureus detection; staphylococcal food poisoning; food-borne pathogen
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MDPI and ACS Style

G. Abril, A.; G. Villa, T.; Barros-Velázquez, J.; Cañas, B.; Sánchez-Pérez, A.; Calo-Mata, P.; Carrera, M. Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxins and Their Detection in the Dairy Industry and Mastitis. Toxins 2020, 12, 537. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090537

AMA Style

G. Abril A, G. Villa T, Barros-Velázquez J, Cañas B, Sánchez-Pérez A, Calo-Mata P, Carrera M. Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxins and Their Detection in the Dairy Industry and Mastitis. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):537. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090537

Chicago/Turabian Style

G. Abril, Ana; G. Villa, Tomás; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Cañas, Benito; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Carrera, Mónica. 2020. "Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxins and Their Detection in the Dairy Industry and Mastitis" Toxins 12, no. 9: 537. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090537

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