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Article

[D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR: A Small–Large Difference: Significantly Different Effects on Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) Growth and Phototropic Response after Single Contact during Imbibition with Each of These Microcystin Variants

1
Center for Environmental Research (CIM), National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2
Area of Toxicology, School of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
3
Botanical Area, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
4
Divsion of Vascular Plants, Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
5
Institute of Vegetal Physiology (INFIVE), National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), National University of La Plata (UNLP), La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
6
Department of Basic and Experimental Sciences, UNNOBA, Junín 6000, Buenos Aires, Argentina
7
Research Center in Food Cryotechnology (CIDCA), National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), La Plata 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
[D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR, two microcystins differing in one amino acid, constitute a sanitary and environmental problem owing to their frequent and concomitant presence in water bodies of the Americas and their association with human intoxication during recreational exposure to cyanobacterial bloom. Present in reservoirs used for irrigation as well, they can generate problems in the development of crops such as Phaseolus vulgaris, of nutritional and economic interest to the region. Although numerous works address the toxic effects of MC-LR, information on the toxicity of [D-Leu1]MC-LR is limited. Our objective was to study the toxic effects of [D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR (3.5 µg/ml) on P. vulgaris after a single contact at the imbibition stage. Our findings indicate that 10 days post treatment, [D-Leu1]MC-LR generates morphological and physiological alterations more pronounced than those caused by MC-LR. In addition to the alterations produced by [D-Leu1]MC-LR in the development of seedlings and the structure of the leaves, roots and stems, we also found alterations in leaf stomatal density and conductivity, a longer delay in the phototropic response and a decrease in the maximum curvature angles achieved with respect to that observed for MC-LR. Our findings indicate that these alterations are linked to the greater inhibition of phosphatase activity generated by [D-Leu1]MC-LR, rather than to oxidative damage. We observed that 30 days after treatment with MC-LR, plants presented better development and recovery than those treated with [D-Leu1]MC-LR. Further studies are required on [D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR toxicity and their underlying mechanisms of action. View Full-Text
Keywords: [D-Leu1]microcystin-LR; microcystin-LR; imbibition stage; phototropism; phosphatase inhibition [D-Leu1]microcystin-LR; microcystin-LR; imbibition stage; phototropism; phosphatase inhibition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malaissi, L.; Vaccarini, C.A.; Hernández, M.P.; Ruscitti, M.; Arango, C.; Busquets, F.; Arambarri, A.M.; Giannuzzi, L.; Andrinolo, D.; Sedan, D. [D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR: A Small–Large Difference: Significantly Different Effects on Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) Growth and Phototropic Response after Single Contact during Imbibition with Each of These Microcystin Variants. Toxins 2020, 12, 585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090585

AMA Style

Malaissi L, Vaccarini CA, Hernández MP, Ruscitti M, Arango C, Busquets F, Arambarri AM, Giannuzzi L, Andrinolo D, Sedan D. [D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR: A Small–Large Difference: Significantly Different Effects on Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) Growth and Phototropic Response after Single Contact during Imbibition with Each of These Microcystin Variants. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malaissi, Luciano, Cristian A. Vaccarini, Marcelo P. Hernández, Marcela Ruscitti, Cecilia Arango, Federico Busquets, Ana M. Arambarri, Leda Giannuzzi, Darío Andrinolo, and Daniela Sedan. 2020. "[D-Leu1]MC-LR and MC-LR: A Small–Large Difference: Significantly Different Effects on Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) Growth and Phototropic Response after Single Contact during Imbibition with Each of These Microcystin Variants" Toxins 12, no. 9: 585. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090585

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