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Article

Biomonitoring of Aflatoxin B1 and Deoxynivalenol in a Rural Pakistan Population Using Ultra-Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method

1
School of Food Science & Nutrition, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
2
School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
3
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, China
4
Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Islamabad 44080, Pakistan
5
Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2020 / Revised: 6 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 12 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins)
There are limited data on exposure to mycotoxins in Pakistan. Here, we measured exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a known contaminant of rice, using biomarkers of exposure. Wheat (n = 195) and rice (n = 62) samples were analyzed for AFB1 and DON levels, and the corresponding urinary biomarkers were analyzed in urine samples from a rural population (n = 264, aged 4–80 years, male 58%) using ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. AFB1 was detected in 66% of rice (5.04 ± 11.94 µg/kg) and 3% of wheat samples. AFM1 (hydroxylated form of AFB1) was detected in 69% of urine samples, mean 0.023 ± 0.048 ng/mL and DON was detected in 20% of urine samples, mean 0.170 ± 0.129 ng/mL. The maximum probable daily intake for DON derived from the urinary biomarker was 59.8 ng/kg b.w./day, which is below the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives’ tolerable daily intake (1000 ng/kg b.w./day). However, for aflatoxin, the derived margin of exposure (MoE) of (13.2) was well below the safe MoE (10,000) suggested by the European Food Safety Authority. The calculated aflatoxin-associated cancer risk of 0.514/105 individuals/year suggests that measures should be taken to reduce the AFB1 contamination in food, particularly rice, in Pakistan. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin; deoxynivalenol; exposure assessment; human biomonitoring; UPLC-MS/MS aflatoxin; deoxynivalenol; exposure assessment; human biomonitoring; UPLC-MS/MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, L.; Routledge, M.N.; Rasheed, H.; Ismail, A.; Dong, Y.; Jiang, T.; Gong, Y.Y. Biomonitoring of Aflatoxin B1 and Deoxynivalenol in a Rural Pakistan Population Using Ultra-Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method. Toxins 2020, 12, 591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090591

AMA Style

Xia L, Routledge MN, Rasheed H, Ismail A, Dong Y, Jiang T, Gong YY. Biomonitoring of Aflatoxin B1 and Deoxynivalenol in a Rural Pakistan Population Using Ultra-Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090591

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xia, Lei; Routledge, Michael N.; Rasheed, Hifza; Ismail, Amir; Dong, Yao; Jiang, Tao; Gong, Yun Y. 2020. "Biomonitoring of Aflatoxin B1 and Deoxynivalenol in a Rural Pakistan Population Using Ultra-Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method" Toxins 12, no. 9: 591. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090591

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