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Article

Genetic Diversity, Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin Profiles of Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Dried Vine Fruits

1
Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 23 Bratislava, Slovakia
2
Institute of Laboratory Research on Geomaterials, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, SK-842 15 Bratislava 4, Slovakia
3
Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, Staff of Unesco Chair for Health Education and Sustainable Development, 801 31 Napoli, Italy
4
Department of Botany, Charles University, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Food)
We investigated ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in raisin samples purchased from Slovak markets and determined the diversity of black-spored aspergilli as potential OTA and fumonisin (FB1 and FB2) producers. The taxonomic identification was performed using sequences of the nuclear ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region, the calmodulin and beta-tubulin genes. We obtained 239 isolates from eight fungal genera, of which 197 belonged to Aspergillus (82%) and 42 strains (18%) to other fungal genera. OTA contamination was evidenced in 75% of the samples and its level ranged from 0.8 to 10.6 µg/kg. The combination of all three markers used enabled unambiguous identification of A. carbonarius, A. luchuensis, A. niger, A. tubingensis and A. welwitschiae. The dominant coloniser, simultaneously having the highest within-species diversity isolated from our raisin samples, was A. tubingensis. Out of all analysed strains, only A. carbonarius was found to produce OTA, but in relatively high quantity (2477–4382 µg/kg). The production of FB1 and FB2 was evidenced in A. niger strains only. View Full-Text
Keywords: food spoilage; mycotoxin; fungal diversity; calmodulin; beta-tubulin; HPLC food spoilage; mycotoxin; fungal diversity; calmodulin; beta-tubulin; HPLC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mikušová, P.; Caboň, M.; Melichárková, A.; Urík, M.; Ritieni, A.; Slovák, M. Genetic Diversity, Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin Profiles of Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Dried Vine Fruits. Toxins 2020, 12, 592. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090592

AMA Style

Mikušová P, Caboň M, Melichárková A, Urík M, Ritieni A, Slovák M. Genetic Diversity, Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin Profiles of Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Dried Vine Fruits. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):592. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090592

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mikušová, Petra, Miroslav Caboň, Andrea Melichárková, Martin Urík, Alberto Ritieni, and Marek Slovák. 2020. "Genetic Diversity, Ochratoxin A and Fumonisin Profiles of Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Dried Vine Fruits" Toxins 12, no. 9: 592. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12090592

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