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Uremic Vascular Calcification: The Pathogenic Roles and Gastrointestinal Decontamination of Uremic Toxins
Review

Role of Uremic Toxins in Early Vascular Ageing and Calcification

1
One Health Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Las Américas (UDLA), Antigua Vía a Nayón, Quito EC170124, Ecuador
2
Nephrology Department, Hospital de Especialidades Eugenio Espejo, Av. Yahuachi s/n, Quito EC170403, Ecuador
3
Division of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors have contributed equally.
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 25 December 2020 / Accepted: 28 December 2020 / Published: 3 January 2021
In patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), the accumulation of uremic toxins, caused by a combination of decreased excretion secondary to reduced kidney function and increased generation secondary to aberrant expression of metabolite genes, interferes with different biological functions of cells and organs, contributing to a state of chronic inflammation and other adverse biologic effects that may cause tissue damage. Several uremic toxins have been implicated in severe vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) changes and other alterations leading to vascular calcification (VC) and early vascular ageing (EVA). The above mentioned are predominant clinical features of patients with CKD, contributing to their exceptionally high cardiovascular mortality. Herein, we present an update on pathophysiological processes and mediators underlying VC and EVA induced by uremic toxins. Moreover, we discuss their clinical impact, and possible therapeutic targets aiming at preventing or ameliorating the harmful effects of uremic toxins on the vasculature. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; uremic toxins; vascular calcification; cardiovascular disease; vascular smooth muscle cells chronic kidney disease; uremic toxins; vascular calcification; cardiovascular disease; vascular smooth muscle cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kyriakidis, N.C.; Cobo, G.; Dai, L.; Lindholm, B.; Stenvinkel, P. Role of Uremic Toxins in Early Vascular Ageing and Calcification. Toxins 2021, 13, 26. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010026

AMA Style

Kyriakidis NC, Cobo G, Dai L, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P. Role of Uremic Toxins in Early Vascular Ageing and Calcification. Toxins. 2021; 13(1):26. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010026

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kyriakidis, Nikolaos C., Gabriela Cobo, Lu Dai, Bengt Lindholm, and Peter Stenvinkel. 2021. "Role of Uremic Toxins in Early Vascular Ageing and Calcification" Toxins 13, no. 1: 26. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010026

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