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Article

Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum

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Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, P.O. Box 17011, Gauteng 2028, South Africa
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Centre of Excellence in Mycotoxicology and Public Health, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwara State University, Malete P.M.B. 1530, Kwara State, Nigeria
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Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan 200284, Nigeria
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Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
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Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
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Department of Data Analysis and Mathematical Modelling, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 4 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins: Decontamination and Adsorption)
Although previous studies have reported the use of nixtamalization for mycotoxins reduction in maize, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and other nixtamalization cooking ingredients for mycotoxin reduction/decontamination in sorghum and other cereals still need to be determined. The current study investigated the effect of five nixtamalization cooking ingredients (wood ashes, calcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and calcium chloride) on the reduction of Fusarium mycotoxins in artificially contaminated maize and sorghum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All tested cooking ingredients effectively reduced levels of mycotoxins in the contaminated samples with reduction initiated immediately after the washing step. Except for the calcium chloride nixtamal, levels of fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in the processed sorghum nixtamal samples were below the limit of detection. Meanwhile, the lowest pH values were obtained from the maize (4.84; 4.99), as well as sorghum (4.83; 4.81) nejayote and nixtamal samples obtained via calcium chloride treatment. Overall, the results revealed that the tested cooking ingredients were effective in reducing the target mycotoxins. In addition, it pointed out the potential of calcium chloride, though with reduced effectiveness, as a possible greener alternative cooking ingredient (ecological nixtamalization) when there are environmental concerns caused by alkaline nejayote. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooking ingredients; food safety; Fusarium mycotoxins; LC-MS/MS; maize; nixtamalization; sorghum; food processing cooking ingredients; food safety; Fusarium mycotoxins; LC-MS/MS; maize; nixtamalization; sorghum; food processing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Odukoya, J.O.; De Saeger, S.; De Boevre, M.; Adegoke, G.O.; Audenaert, K.; Croubels, S.; Antonissen, G.; Vermeulen, K.; Gbashi, S.; Njobeh, P.B. Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum. Toxins 2021, 13, 27. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010027

AMA Style

Odukoya JO, De Saeger S, De Boevre M, Adegoke GO, Audenaert K, Croubels S, Antonissen G, Vermeulen K, Gbashi S, Njobeh PB. Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum. Toxins. 2021; 13(1):27. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Odukoya, Julianah O.; De Saeger, Sarah; De Boevre, Marthe; Adegoke, Gabriel O.; Audenaert, Kris; Croubels, Siska; Antonissen, Gunther; Vermeulen, Karel; Gbashi, Sefater; Njobeh, Patrick B. 2021. "Effect of Selected Cooking Ingredients for Nixtamalization on the Reduction of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Maize and Sorghum" Toxins 13, no. 1: 27. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010027

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