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Review

Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development

1
Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences Kolkata, Kolkata 700017, India
2
Departments of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Rd, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK
3
Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
4
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata 700020, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2020 / Revised: 7 January 2021 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
Since its introduction as a treatment for strabismus, botulinum toxin (BoNT) has had a phenomenal journey and is now recommended as first-line treatment for focal dystonia, despite short-term clinical benefits and the risks of adverse effects. To cater for the high demand across various medical specialties, at least six US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved formulations of BoNT are currently available for diverse labelled indications. The toxo-pharmacological properties of these formulations are not uniform and thus should not be used interchangeably. Synthetic BoNTs and BoNTs from non-clostridial sources are not far from clinical use. Moreover, the study of mutations in naturally occurring toxins has led to modulation in the toxo-pharmacokinetic properties of BoNTs, including the duration and potency. We present an overview of the toxo-pharmacology of conventional and novel BoNT preparations, including those awaiting imminent translation from the laboratory to the clinic. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin; dystonia; recombinant botulinum toxin; acetylcholine; neuromuscular blockade botulinum toxin; dystonia; recombinant botulinum toxin; acetylcholine; neuromuscular blockade
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choudhury, S.; Baker, M.R.; Chatterjee, S.; Kumar, H. Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development. Toxins 2021, 13, 58. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010058

AMA Style

Choudhury S, Baker MR, Chatterjee S, Kumar H. Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development. Toxins. 2021; 13(1):58. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Choudhury, Supriyo; Baker, Mark R.; Chatterjee, Suparna; Kumar, Hrishikesh. 2021. "Botulinum Toxin: An Update on Pharmacology and Newer Products in Development" Toxins 13, no. 1: 58. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010058

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