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Article

Differentiating Two Closely Related Alexandrium Species Using Comparative Quantitative Proteomics

1
Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines- Diliman, Velasquez Street, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
2
Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo City, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 23 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omic Technologies Applied to the Study of Marine Shellfish Toxins)
Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium tamutum are two closely related harmful algal bloom (HAB)-causing species with different toxicity. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics and two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), a comprehensive characterization of the proteomes of A. minutum and A. tamutum was performed to identify the cellular and molecular underpinnings for the dissimilarity between these two species. A total of 1436 proteins and 420 protein spots were identified using iTRAQ-based proteomics and 2D-DIGE, respectively. Both methods revealed little difference (10–12%) between the proteomes of A. minutum and A. tamutum, highlighting that these organisms follow similar cellular and biological processes at the exponential stage. Toxin biosynthetic enzymes were present in both organisms. However, the gonyautoxin-producing A. minutum showed higher levels of osmotic growth proteins, Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and type-I polyketide synthase compared to the non-toxic A. tamutum. Further, A. tamutum had increased S-adenosylmethionine transferase that may potentially have a negative feedback mechanism to toxin biosynthesis. The complementary proteomics approach provided insights into the biochemistry of these two closely related HAB-causing organisms. The identified proteins are potential biomarkers for organismal toxicity and could be explored for environmental monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteomics; Alexandrium; harmful algal bloom (HAB) proteomics; Alexandrium; harmful algal bloom (HAB)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Subong, B.J.J.; Lluisma, A.O.; Azanza, R.V.; Salvador-Reyes, L.A. Differentiating Two Closely Related Alexandrium Species Using Comparative Quantitative Proteomics. Toxins 2021, 13, 7. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010007

AMA Style

Subong BJJ, Lluisma AO, Azanza RV, Salvador-Reyes LA. Differentiating Two Closely Related Alexandrium Species Using Comparative Quantitative Proteomics. Toxins. 2021; 13(1):7. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Subong, Bryan J.J.; Lluisma, Arturo O.; Azanza, Rhodora V.; Salvador-Reyes, Lilibeth A. 2021. "Differentiating Two Closely Related Alexandrium Species Using Comparative Quantitative Proteomics" Toxins 13, no. 1: 7. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010007

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