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Key Global Actions for Mycotoxin Management in Wheat and Other Small Grains

1
Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Department of Plant Pathology, 1712 Claflin Avenue, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Institute of the Science of Food Production, National Research Council (CNR-ISPA), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Cereal Research Non-Profit Ltd., Alsókikötő sor 9, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
4
Department of Plant and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Apdo. Postal 6-641, Mexico 06600, DF, Mexico
6
INRAE, UR1264 Mycology and Food Safety (MycSA), F-33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
7
Research Institute on Mycology and Mycotoxicology (IMICO), National Scientific and Technical Research Council-National University of Río Cuarto (CONICET-UNRC), 5800 Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina
8
Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-900, MG, Brazil
9
College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, P.O. Box 5, Hawassa 1000, Ethiopia
10
Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Universitá Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via E. Parmense, 84-29122 Piacenza, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2021 / Revised: 22 September 2021 / Accepted: 29 September 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
Mycotoxins in small grains are a significant and long-standing problem. These contaminants may be produced by members of several fungal genera, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Claviceps, and Penicillium. Interventions that limit contamination can be made both pre-harvest and post-harvest. Many problems and strategies to control them and the toxins they produce are similar regardless of the location at which they are employed, while others are more common in some areas than in others. Increased knowledge of host-plant resistance, better agronomic methods, improved fungicide management, and better storage strategies all have application on a global basis. We summarize the major pre- and post-harvest control strategies currently in use. In the area of pre-harvest, these include resistant host lines, fungicides and their application guided by epidemiological models, and multiple cultural practices. In the area of post-harvest, drying, storage, cleaning and sorting, and some end-product processes were the most important at the global level. We also employed the Nominal Group discussion technique to identify and prioritize potential steps forward and to reduce problems associated with human and animal consumption of these grains. Identifying existing and potentially novel mechanisms to effectively manage mycotoxin problems in these grains is essential to ensure the safety of humans and domesticated animals that consume these grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: black point; deoxynivalenol; disease resistance; ergot; Fusarium Head Blight; nivalenol; Nominal Group discussion; post-harvest; trichothecenes; zearalenone black point; deoxynivalenol; disease resistance; ergot; Fusarium Head Blight; nivalenol; Nominal Group discussion; post-harvest; trichothecenes; zearalenone
MDPI and ACS Style

Leslie, J.F.; Moretti, A.; Mesterházy, Á.; Ameye, M.; Audenaert, K.; Singh, P.K.; Richard-Forget, F.; Chulze, S.N.; Ponte, E.M.D.; Chala, A.; Battilani, P.; Logrieco, A.F. Key Global Actions for Mycotoxin Management in Wheat and Other Small Grains. Toxins 2021, 13, 725. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13100725

AMA Style

Leslie JF, Moretti A, Mesterházy Á, Ameye M, Audenaert K, Singh PK, Richard-Forget F, Chulze SN, Ponte EMD, Chala A, Battilani P, Logrieco AF. Key Global Actions for Mycotoxin Management in Wheat and Other Small Grains. Toxins. 2021; 13(10):725. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13100725

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leslie, John F., Antonio Moretti, Ákos Mesterházy, Maarten Ameye, Kris Audenaert, Pawan K. Singh, Florence Richard-Forget, Sofía N. Chulze, Emerson M.D. Ponte, Alemayehu Chala, Paola Battilani, and Antonio F. Logrieco. 2021. "Key Global Actions for Mycotoxin Management in Wheat and Other Small Grains" Toxins 13, no. 10: 725. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13100725

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