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Review

Mycotoxins—Biomonitoring and Human Exposure

1
Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
Department of Agroecology and Environment Protection, Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 23 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins)
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly have a toxic effect on human and animal health. Different foodstuff can be contaminated and are considered the major source of human exposure to mycotoxins, but occupational and environmental exposure can also significantly contribute to this problem. This review aims to provide a short overview of the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and regulated mycotoxins in foods and workplaces, following the current literature and data presented in scientific papers. Biomonitoring of mycotoxins in plasma, serum, urine, and blood samples has become a common method for determining the exposure to different mycotoxins. Novel techniques are more and more precise and accurate and are aiming toward the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins in one analysis. Application of liquid chromatography (LC) methodologies, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has become a common and most reliable method for determining the exposure to mycotoxins. Numerous references confirm the importance of mycotoxin biomonitoring to assess the exposure for humans and animals. The objectives of this paper were to review the general approaches to biomonitoring of different mycotoxins and the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins, using recent literature sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; biomonitoring; human health; exposure mycotoxins; biomonitoring; human health; exposure
MDPI and ACS Style

Habschied, K.; Kanižai Šarić, G.; Krstanović, V.; Mastanjević, K. Mycotoxins—Biomonitoring and Human Exposure. Toxins 2021, 13, 113. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020113

AMA Style

Habschied K, Kanižai Šarić G, Krstanović V, Mastanjević K. Mycotoxins—Biomonitoring and Human Exposure. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):113. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020113

Chicago/Turabian Style

Habschied, Kristina, Gabriella Kanižai Šarić, Vinko Krstanović, and Krešimir Mastanjević. 2021. "Mycotoxins—Biomonitoring and Human Exposure" Toxins 13, no. 2: 113. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020113

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