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Article

Potentially Toxic Planktic and Benthic Cyanobacteria in Slovenian Freshwater Bodies: Detection by Quantitative PCR

1
Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Biotechnology and Systems Biology, National Institute of Biology, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Slovenian Environment Agency, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
Department of Sustainable Agro-Ecosystems and Bioresources, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 3 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
Due to increased frequency of cyanobacterial blooms and emerging evidence of cyanotoxicity in biofilm, reliable methods for early cyanotoxin threat detection are of major importance for protection of human, animal and environmental health. To complement the current methods of risk assessment, this study aimed to evaluate selected qPCR assays for detection of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in environmental samples. In the course of one year, 25 plankton and 23 biofilm samples were collected from 15 water bodies in Slovenia. Three different analyses were performed and compared to each other; qPCR targeting mcyE, cyrJ and sxtA genes involved in cyanotoxin production, LC-MS/MS quantifying microcystin, cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin concentration, and microscopic analyses identifying potentially toxic cyanobacterial taxa. qPCR analyses detected potentially toxic Microcystis in 10 lake plankton samples, and potentially toxic Planktothrix cells in 12 lake plankton and one lake biofilm sample. A positive correlation was observed between numbers of mcyE gene copies and microcystin concentrations. Potential cylindrospermopsin- and saxitoxin-producers were detected in three and seven lake biofilm samples, respectively. The study demonstrated a potential for cyanotoxin production that was left undetected by traditional methods in both plankton and biofilm samples. Thus, the qPCR method could be useful in regular monitoring of water bodies to improve risk assessment and enable timely measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanotoxin detection; harmful cyanobacterial blooms; next-generation biomonitoring; real-time PCR; qPCR; LC-MS/MS; microcystin; cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxin cyanotoxin detection; harmful cyanobacterial blooms; next-generation biomonitoring; real-time PCR; qPCR; LC-MS/MS; microcystin; cylindrospermopsin; saxitoxin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zupančič, M.; Kogovšek, P.; Šter, T.; Remec Rekar, Š.; Cerasino, L.; Baebler, Š.; Krivograd Klemenčič, A.; Eleršek, T. Potentially Toxic Planktic and Benthic Cyanobacteria in Slovenian Freshwater Bodies: Detection by Quantitative PCR. Toxins 2021, 13, 133. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020133

AMA Style

Zupančič M, Kogovšek P, Šter T, Remec Rekar Š, Cerasino L, Baebler Š, Krivograd Klemenčič A, Eleršek T. Potentially Toxic Planktic and Benthic Cyanobacteria in Slovenian Freshwater Bodies: Detection by Quantitative PCR. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):133. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020133

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zupančič, Maša, Polona Kogovšek, Tadeja Šter, Špela Remec Rekar, Leonardo Cerasino, Špela Baebler, Aleksandra Krivograd Klemenčič, and Tina Eleršek. 2021. "Potentially Toxic Planktic and Benthic Cyanobacteria in Slovenian Freshwater Bodies: Detection by Quantitative PCR" Toxins 13, no. 2: 133. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020133

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