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Open AccessCommunication

Fungi–Bacteria Correlation in Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients

by 1,2,†, 3,† and 2,4,*
School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Department of Medicine, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally.
Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
Alcohol-related liver disease is one of the most prevalent types of chronic liver diseases globally. Alcohol-related liver disease begins with fatty liver, which further develops into hepatic inflammation, hepatocyte injury, and progresses to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Compositional changes of gut bacteria and fungi were found in patients with alcohol-related liver disease. However, the functional changes of fungi and correlations between fungi and bacteria have not been investigated. In this study, we first examined the functional capacity of fungi in patients with alcohol-related liver disease using shotgun metagenomics. Among 24 MetaCyc pathways contributed by fungi, superpathway of allantoin degradation in yeast was enriched in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Furthermore, we compared the predictive power of bacteria versus fungi and found that bacteria performed better than fungi to separate patients with alcoholic hepatitis from non-alcoholic controls and patients with alcohol use disorder. Finally, we investigated the associations between the intestinal fungi and bacteria in alcoholic hepatitis patients. Positive association between fungi and bacteria was found between Cladosporium and Gemmiger, meanwhile negative association was found between Cryptococcus and Pseudomonas in alcoholic hepatitis patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycobiota; ITS sequencing; alcoholic hepatitis mycobiota; ITS sequencing; alcoholic hepatitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, B.; Zhang, X.; Schnabl, B. Fungi–Bacteria Correlation in Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients. Toxins 2021, 13, 143.

AMA Style

Gao B, Zhang X, Schnabl B. Fungi–Bacteria Correlation in Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):143.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gao, Bei; Zhang, Xinlian; Schnabl, Bernd. 2021. "Fungi–Bacteria Correlation in Alcoholic Hepatitis Patients" Toxins 13, no. 2: 143.

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