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The Buzz about ADP-Ribosylation Toxins from Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood in Honey Bees

1
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Bee Diseases, Institute for Bee Research, 16540 Hohen Neuendorf, Germany
2
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 January 2021 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Function of Bacterial ADP-Ribosylation Toxins)
The Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood, a highly contagious and often fatal honey bee brood disease. The species P. larvae comprises five so-called ERIC-genotypes which differ in virulence and pathogenesis strategies. In the past two decades, the identification and characterization of several P. larvae virulence factors have led to considerable progress in understanding the molecular basis of pathogen-host-interactions during P. larvae infections. Among these virulence factors are three ADP-ribosylating AB-toxins, Plx1, Plx2, and C3larvin. Plx1 is a phage-born toxin highly homologous to the pierisin-like AB-toxins expressed by the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae (Lepidoptera, Insecta) and to scabin expressed by the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabiei. These toxins ADP-ribosylate DNA and thus induce apoptosis. While the presumed cellular target of Plx1 still awaits final experimental proof, the classification of the A subunits of the binary AB-toxins Plx2 and C3larvin as typical C3-like toxins, which ADP-ribosylate Rho-proteins, has been confirmed experimentally. Normally, C3-exoenzymes do not occur together with a B subunit partner, but as single domain toxins. Interestingly, the B subunits of the two P. larvae C3-like toxins are homologous to the B-subunits of C2-like toxins with striking structural similarity to the PA-63 protomer of Bacillus anthracis. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADP-ribosylation; bacterial toxins; American Foulbrood; Paenibacillus larvae; honey bee disease ADP-ribosylation; bacterial toxins; American Foulbrood; Paenibacillus larvae; honey bee disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ebeling, J.; Fünfhaus, A.; Genersch, E. The Buzz about ADP-Ribosylation Toxins from Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood in Honey Bees. Toxins 2021, 13, 151. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020151

AMA Style

Ebeling J, Fünfhaus A, Genersch E. The Buzz about ADP-Ribosylation Toxins from Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood in Honey Bees. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):151. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ebeling, Julia; Fünfhaus, Anne; Genersch, Elke. 2021. "The Buzz about ADP-Ribosylation Toxins from Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood in Honey Bees" Toxins 13, no. 2: 151. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020151

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