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Botulinum Toxin in Movement Disorders: An Update
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The Central Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Dystonia and Spasticity

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University Hospital Olomouc, Palacký University Olomouc, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic
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Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 2 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
In dystonic and spastic movement disorders, however different in their pathophysiological mechanisms, a similar impairment of sensorimotor control with special emphasis on afferentation is assumed. Peripheral intervention on afferent inputs evokes plastic changes within the central sensorimotor system. Intramuscular application of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is a standard evidence-based treatment for both conditions. Apart from its peripheral action on muscle spindles, a growing body of evidence suggests that BoNT-A effects could also be mediated by changes at the central level including cerebral cortex. We review recent studies employing electrophysiology and neuroimaging to investigate how intramuscular application of BoNT-A influences cortical reorganization. Based on such data, BoNT-A becomes gradually accepted as a promising tool to correct the maladaptive plastic changes within the sensorimotor cortex. In summary, electrophysiology and especially neuroimaging studies with BoNT-A further our understanding of pathophysiology underlying dystonic and spastic movement disorders and may consequently help develop novel treatment strategies based on neural plasticity. View Full-Text
Keywords: dystonia; spasticity; botulinum toxin; electrophysiology; functional magnetic resonance imaging; neural plasticity dystonia; spasticity; botulinum toxin; electrophysiology; functional magnetic resonance imaging; neural plasticity
MDPI and ACS Style

Hok, P.; Veverka, T.; Hluštík, P.; Nevrlý, M.; Kaňovský, P. The Central Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Dystonia and Spasticity. Toxins 2021, 13, 155. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020155

AMA Style

Hok P, Veverka T, Hluštík P, Nevrlý M, Kaňovský P. The Central Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Dystonia and Spasticity. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):155. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hok, Pavel; Veverka, Tomáš; Hluštík, Petr; Nevrlý, Martin; Kaňovský, Petr. 2021. "The Central Effects of Botulinum Toxin in Dystonia and Spasticity" Toxins 13, no. 2: 155. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020155

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