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Botulinum Toxin Type A to Improve Facial Symmetry in Facial Palsy: A Practical Guideline and Clinical Experience

Independent Researcher, São Paulo 04029-200, Brazil
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
Unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy jeopardizes quality of life, rendering psychological consequences such as low self-esteem, social isolation, anxiety, and depression. Among therapeutical approaches, use of Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) on the nonparalyzed side has shown promising results and improvement of quality of life. Nevertheless, the correct technique is paramount, since over-injection of the muscles can result in lack of function, leading to a “paralyzed” appearance, and even worse, functional incompetence, which may cause greater distress to patients. Therefore, the objective of this article is to provide a practical guideline for botulinum toxin use in facial palsy. To this aim, adequate patient assessment, BoNT-A choice, injection plan and dosage, and injection techniques are covered. View Full-Text
Keywords: facial palsy; facial paralysis; neurotoxin; botulinum toxin A; incobotulinum-toxin A; facial asymmetry facial palsy; facial paralysis; neurotoxin; botulinum toxin A; incobotulinum-toxin A; facial asymmetry
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Sanctis Pecora, C.; Shitara, D. Botulinum Toxin Type A to Improve Facial Symmetry in Facial Palsy: A Practical Guideline and Clinical Experience. Toxins 2021, 13, 159. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020159

AMA Style

de Sanctis Pecora C, Shitara D. Botulinum Toxin Type A to Improve Facial Symmetry in Facial Palsy: A Practical Guideline and Clinical Experience. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):159. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020159

Chicago/Turabian Style

de Sanctis Pecora, Carla; Shitara, Danielle. 2021. "Botulinum Toxin Type A to Improve Facial Symmetry in Facial Palsy: A Practical Guideline and Clinical Experience" Toxins 13, no. 2: 159. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020159

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