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Open AccessArticle

Attempt to Develop Rat Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Model Using Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) Venom Injection

1
Management Department of Biosafety and Laboratory Animal, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 208-0011, Japan
2
Department of Systems Biology in Thromboregulation, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan
3
Emergency and Critical Care Medicine St. Luke’s International Hospital Tokyo 104-8560, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2021 / Accepted: 15 February 2021 / Published: 18 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Disseminated intravascular coagulation, a severe clinical condition caused by an underlying disease, involves a markedly continuous and widespread activation of coagulation in the circulating blood and the formation of numerous microvascular thrombi. A snakebite, including that of the Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus), demonstrates this clinical condition. Thus, an animal model using Yamakagashi venom was constructed. Yamakagashi venom was administered to rats, and its lethality and the changes in blood coagulation factors were detected after venom injection. When 300 μg venom was intramuscularly administered to 12-week-old rats, (1) they exhibited hematuria with plasma hemolysis and died within 48 h; (2) Thrombocytopenia in the blood was observed in the rats; (3) irreversible prolongation of prothrombin time in the plasma to the measurement limit occurred; (4) fibrinogen concentration in the plasma irreversibly decreased below the measurement limit; and (5) A transient increase in the plasma concentration of D-dimer was observed. In this model, a fixed amount of Rhabdophis tigrinus venom injection resulted in the clinical symptom similar to the human pathology with snakebite. The use of the rat model is very effective in validating the therapeutic effect of human disseminated intravascular coagulation condition due to snakebite. View Full-Text
Keywords: rat disseminated intravascular coagulation model; Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) venom; lethality; thrombocytopenia; D-dimer; anti-Yamakagashi equine antibody rat disseminated intravascular coagulation model; Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) venom; lethality; thrombocytopenia; D-dimer; anti-Yamakagashi equine antibody
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamamoto, A.; Ito, T.; Hifumi, T. Attempt to Develop Rat Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Model Using Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) Venom Injection. Toxins 2021, 13, 160. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020160

AMA Style

Yamamoto A, Ito T, Hifumi T. Attempt to Develop Rat Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Model Using Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) Venom Injection. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):160. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020160

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamamoto, Akihiko; Ito, Takashi; Hifumi, Toru. 2021. "Attempt to Develop Rat Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Model Using Yamakagashi (Rhabdophis tigrinus) Venom Injection" Toxins 13, no. 2: 160. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020160

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