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Article

Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Rumen of Dairy Cows with and without Application of a Zearalenone-Degrading Enzyme

1
BIOMIN Research Center, BIOMIN Holding GmbH, 3430 Tulln, Austria
2
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 18 November 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism of Mycotoxins by Animals and Microbes)
The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feed and is well known for its estrogenic effects in animals. Cattle are considered less sensitive to ZEN than pigs. However, ZEN has previously been shown to be converted to the highly estrogenic metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) in rumen fluid in vitro. Here, we investigate the metabolism of ZEN in the reticulorumen of dairy cows. To this end, rumen-fistulated non-lactating Holstein Friesian cows (n = 4) received a one-time oral dose of ZEN (5 mg ZEN in 500 g concentrate feed) and the concentrations of ZEN and ZEN metabolites were measured in free rumen liquid from three reticulorumen locations (reticulum, ventral sac and dorsal mat layer) during a 34-h period. In all three locations, α-ZEL was the predominant ZEN metabolite and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL) was detected in lower concentrations. ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were eliminated from the ventral sac and reticulum within 34 h, yet low concentrations of ZEN and α-ZEL were still detected in the dorsal mat 34 h after ZEN administration. In a second step, we investigated the efficacy of the enzyme zearalenone hydrolase ZenA (EC 3.1.1.-, commercial name ZENzyme®, BIOMIN Holding GmbH, Getzersdorf, Austria) to degrade ZEN to the non-estrogenic metabolite hydrolyzed zearalenone (HZEN) in the reticulorumen in vitro and in vivo. ZenA showed a high ZEN-degrading activity in rumen fluid in vitro. When ZenA was added to ZEN-contaminated concentrate fed to rumen-fistulated cows (n = 4), concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were significantly reduced in all three reticulorumen compartments compared to administration of ZEN-contaminated concentrate without ZenA. Upon ZenA administration, degradation products HZEN and decarboxylated HZEN were detected in the reticulorumen. In conclusion, endogenous metabolization of ZEN in the reticulorumen increases its estrogenic potency due to the formation of α-ZEL. Our results suggest that application of zearalenone hydrolase ZenA as a feed additive may be a promising strategy to counteract estrogenic effects of ZEN in cattle. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; zearalenone; rumen; metabolism; degradation; hydrolase; feed additive mycotoxin; zearalenone; rumen; metabolism; degradation; hydrolase; feed additive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gruber-Dorninger, C.; Faas, J.; Doupovec, B.; Aleschko, M.; Stoiber, C.; Höbartner-Gußl, A.; Schöndorfer, K.; Killinger, M.; Zebeli, Q.; Schatzmayr, D. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Rumen of Dairy Cows with and without Application of a Zearalenone-Degrading Enzyme. Toxins 2021, 13, 84. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020084

AMA Style

Gruber-Dorninger C, Faas J, Doupovec B, Aleschko M, Stoiber C, Höbartner-Gußl A, Schöndorfer K, Killinger M, Zebeli Q, Schatzmayr D. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Rumen of Dairy Cows with and without Application of a Zearalenone-Degrading Enzyme. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):84. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane, Johannes Faas, Barbara Doupovec, Markus Aleschko, Christian Stoiber, Andreas Höbartner-Gußl, Karin Schöndorfer, Manuela Killinger, Qendrim Zebeli, and Dian Schatzmayr. 2021. "Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Rumen of Dairy Cows with and without Application of a Zearalenone-Degrading Enzyme" Toxins 13, no. 2: 84. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13020084

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