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Toxins, Volume 13, Issue 3 (March 2021) – 60 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Disruption of cell adhesion is implicated in the pathology of the fungal metabolite, sporidesmin, which causes necrotizing inflammation of the biliary tract and liver in livestock that ingest the toxin. The toxicity of sporidesmin is associated with the reactivity of the sulfur atoms in a disulfide-bridged dioxopiperazine ring. Oxidative stress mechanisms based on cycles of reduction and oxidation of the sulfurs with a formation of reactive oxygen species is a commonly accepted toxic mechanism. In the current work, HepG2 cells cultured with sporidesmin showed a loss of adhesion with detachment of sheets of cells and individual cells in the absence of cell death or oxidative stress. We propose that sporidesmin interacts with proteins that regulate interactions between cells and with extracellular matrix, resulting in altered cell contact and subsequent tissue damage in vivo. View this [...] Read more.
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Article
Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 232; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030232 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) [...] Read more.
Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other Fusarium-mycotoxins; (3) high levels of Aspergillus-mycotoxins; (4) high levels of non-regulated Fusarium-mycotoxins; (5) high levels of fumonisins and their metabolites. Altersetin was detected in clusters 1, 3, and 5. Rugulusovin or brevianamide F were detected in several samples, with the highest concentration in cluster 3. Emodin was detected in more than 50.0% of samples of clusters 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Kojic acid occurred mainly in clusters 1 and 2 at very low concentrations. Regarding Fusarium mycotoxins, high occurrences were observed for FB3, FB4, FA1, whereas the average concentrations of FB6 and FA2 were lower than 12.4 µg/kg dry matter. Emerging Fusarium-produced mycotoxins, such as siccanol, moniliformin, equisetin, epiequisetin and bikaverin were detected in the majority of analyzed corn silages. Pestalotin, oxaline, phenopirrozin and questiomycin A were detected at high incidences. Concluding, this work highlighted that corn silages could be contaminated by a high number of regulated and emerging mycotoxins. Full article
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Review
Venom Use in Eulipotyphlans: An Evolutionary and Ecological Approach
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030231 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 727
Abstract
Venomousness is a complex functional trait that has evolved independently many times in the animal kingdom, although it is rare among mammals. Intriguingly, most venomous mammal species belong to Eulipotyphla (solenodons, shrews). This fact may be linked to their high metabolic rate and [...] Read more.
Venomousness is a complex functional trait that has evolved independently many times in the animal kingdom, although it is rare among mammals. Intriguingly, most venomous mammal species belong to Eulipotyphla (solenodons, shrews). This fact may be linked to their high metabolic rate and a nearly continuous demand of nutritious food, and thus it relates the venom functions to facilitation of their efficient foraging. While mammalian venoms have been investigated using biochemical and molecular assays, studies of their ecological functions have been neglected for a long time. Therefore, we provide here an overview of what is currently known about eulipotyphlan venoms, followed by a discussion of how these venoms might have evolved under ecological pressures related to food acquisition, ecological interactions, and defense and protection. We delineate six mutually nonexclusive functions of venom (prey hunting, food hoarding, food digestion, reducing intra- and interspecific conflicts, avoidance of predation risk, weapons in intraspecific competition) and a number of different subfunctions for eulipotyphlans, among which some are so far only hypothetical while others have some empirical confirmation. The functions resulting from the need for food acquisition seem to be the most important for solenodons and especially for shrews. We also present several hypotheses explaining why, despite so many potentially beneficial functions, venomousness is rare even among eulipotyphlans. The tentativeness of many of the arguments presented in this review highlights our main conclusion, i.e., insights regarding the functions of eulipotyphlan venoms merit additional study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Behavioral Ecology of Venom)
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Article
Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus in a Medium Mimicking a Diabetic Foot Environment
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030230 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its behavior in an in vitro model mimicking the conditions encountered in DFI. Four clinical S. aureus strains were cultivated for 16 [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its behavior in an in vitro model mimicking the conditions encountered in DFI. Four clinical S. aureus strains were cultivated for 16 weeks in a specific environment based on the wound-like medium biofilm model. The adaptation of isolates was evaluated as follows: by Caenorhabditis elegans model (to evaluate virulence); by quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) (to evaluate expression of the main virulence genes); and by Biofilm Ring test® (to assess the biofilm formation). After 16 weeks, the four S. aureus had adapted their metabolism, with the development of small colony variants and the loss of β-hemolysin expression. The in vivo nematode model suggested a decrease of virulence, confirmed by qRT-PCRs, showing a significant decrease of expression of the main staphylococcal virulence genes tested, notably the toxin-encoding genes. An increased expression of genes involved in adhesion and biofilm was noted. Our data based on an in vitro model confirm the impact of environment on the adaptation switch of S. aureus to prolonged stress environmental conditions. These results contribute to explore and characterize the virulence of S. aureus in chronic wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance to Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
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Erratum
Erratum: Tremblay, O., et al. Several New Putative Bacterial ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxins Are Revealed from In Silico Data Mining, Including the Novel Toxin Vorin, Encoded by the Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Toxins 2020, 12, 792
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 229; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030229 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Function of Bacterial ADP-Ribosylation Toxins)
Editorial
Identification and Functional Characterization of Plant Toxins
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 228; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030228 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 507
Abstract
The evolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores has led, over millions of years, to the production of many substances that prevent plants from being over-eaten by plant-feeding animals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification and Functional Characterization of Plant Toxins)
Article
Assessing the Single and Combined Toxicity of Chlorantraniliprole and Bacillus thuringiensis (GO33A) against Four Selected Strains of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), and a Gene Expression Analysis
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030227 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Concerns about resistance development to conventional insecticides in diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.), the most destructive pest of Brassica vegetables, have stimulated interest in alternative pest management strategies. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Bt GO33A) combined with chlorantraniliprole (Chl) [...] Read more.
Concerns about resistance development to conventional insecticides in diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.), the most destructive pest of Brassica vegetables, have stimulated interest in alternative pest management strategies. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (Bt GO33A) combined with chlorantraniliprole (Chl) has not been documented. Here, we examined single and combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and Bt to assess the levels of resistance in four DBM strains. Additionally, enzyme activities were tested in field-original highly resistant (FOH-DBM), Bt-resistant (Bt-DBM), chlorantraniliprole-resistant (CL-DBM), and Bt + chlorantraniliprole-resistant (BtC-DBM) strains. The Bt product had the highest toxicity to all four DBM strains followed by the mixture of insecticides (Bt + Chl) and chlorantraniliprole. Synergism between Bt and chlorantraniliprole was observed; the combination of Bt + (Bt + Chl) (1:1, LC50:LC50) was the most toxic, showing a synergistic effect against all four DBM strains with a poison ratio of 1.35, 1.29, 1.27, and 1.25. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxyl-esterase (CarE) activities showed positive correlations with chlorantraniliprole resistance, but no correlation was observed with resistance to Bt and Bt + Chl insecticides. Expression of genes coding for PxGST, CarE, AChE, and MFO using qRT-PCR showed that the PxGST and MFO were significantly overexpressed in Bt-DBM. However, AChE and CarE showed no difference in the four DBM strains. Mixtures of Bt with chlorantraniliprole exhibited synergistic effects and may aid the design of new combinations of pesticides to delay resistance in DBM strains substantially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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Review
Therapeutic Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxin for Autonomic Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease: An Updated Review
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030226 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 751
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease. In addition to the cardinal motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, there are numerous non-motor symptoms as well. Among the non-motor symptoms, autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common. Autonomic symptoms [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease is the most common age-related motoric neurodegenerative disease. In addition to the cardinal motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability, there are numerous non-motor symptoms as well. Among the non-motor symptoms, autonomic nervous system dysfunction is common. Autonomic symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease include sialorrhea, hyperhidrosis, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and urinary dysfunction. Botulinum neurotoxin has been shown to potentially improve these autonomic symptoms. In this review, the varied uses of botulinum neurotoxin for autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease are discussed. This review also includes discussion of some additional indications for the use of botulinum neurotoxin in Parkinson’s disease, including pain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botulinum Neurotoxin and Parkinson’s Disease)
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Article
Dietary Fibre Intake Is Associated with Serum Levels of Uraemic Toxins in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030225 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
Imbalanced colonic microbial metabolism plays a pivotal role in generating protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs), which accumulate with deteriorating kidney function and contribute to the uraemic burden of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dietary choices impact the gut microbiome and metabolism. The aim [...] Read more.
Imbalanced colonic microbial metabolism plays a pivotal role in generating protein-bound uraemic toxins (PBUTs), which accumulate with deteriorating kidney function and contribute to the uraemic burden of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dietary choices impact the gut microbiome and metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between dietary fibre and gut-derived PBUTs in paediatric CKD. Sixty-one (44 male) CKD children (9 ± 5 years) were prospectively followed for two years. Dietary fibre intake was evaluated by either 24-h recalls (73%) or 3-day food records (27%) at the same time of blood sampling for assessment of total and free serum levels of different PBUTs using liquid chromatography. We used linear mixed models to assess associations between fibre intake and PBUT levels. We found an inverse association between increase in fibre consumption (g/day) and serum concentrations of free indoxyl sulfate (−3.1% (−5.9%; −0.3%) (p = 0.035)), free p-cresyl sulfate (−2.5% (−4.7%; −0.3%) (p = 0.034)), total indole acetic acid (IAA) (−1.6% (−3.0%; −0.3%) (p = 0.020)), free IAA (−6.6% (−9.3%; −3.7%) (p < 0.001)), total serum p-cresyl glucuronide (pCG) (−3.0% (−5.6%; −0.5%) (p = 0.021)) and free pCG levels (−3.3% (−5.8%; −0.8%) (p = 0.010)). The observed associations between dietary fibre intake and the investigated PBUTs highlight potential benefits of fibre intake for the paediatric CKD population. The present observational findings should inform and guide adaptations of dietary prescriptions in children with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota Dynamics and Uremic Toxins)
Article
Reduction of Ochratoxin A during the Preparation of Porridge with Sodium Bicarbonate and Fructose
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030224 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potential human carcinogen that poses a significant concern in food safety and public health. OTA has been found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities, including cereal grains. This study investigated the reduction of OTA during the preparation [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a potential human carcinogen that poses a significant concern in food safety and public health. OTA has been found in a wide variety of agricultural commodities, including cereal grains. This study investigated the reduction of OTA during the preparation of rice- and oat-based porridge by a simulated indirect steam process. The effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and fructose on the reduction of OTA were also investigated. During the processing, OTA in rice- and oat-porridge was decreased by 59% and 14%, respectively, from initial OTA artificially added at 20 μg/kg (dry weight basis). When 0.5% and 1% of sodium bicarbonate were added to rice porridge, increased reduction of OTA was observed as 78% and 68%, respectively. The same amounts of added sodium bicarbonate also further reduced OTA in oat porridge to 58% and 72%, respectively. In addition, increased reduction of OTA in the presence of fructose was observed. A combination of the two, i.e., 0.5% sodium bicarbonate and 0.5% fructose, resulted in a 79% and 67% reduction in rice porridge and oat porridge, respectively. These results indicate that indirect steaming may effectively reduce OTA in preparation of porridge-type products, particularly when sodium bicarbonate and/or fructose are added. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights of Ochratoxins)
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Review
Thrombolome and Its Emerging Role in Chronic Kidney Diseases
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 223; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030223 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of thromboembolic complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. These complications lead to increased mortality. Evidence points to the key role of CKD-associated dysbiosis and its effect via [...] Read more.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of thromboembolic complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. These complications lead to increased mortality. Evidence points to the key role of CKD-associated dysbiosis and its effect via the generation of gut microbial metabolites in inducing the prothrombotic phenotype. This phenomenon is known as thrombolome, a panel of intestinal bacteria-derived uremic toxins that enhance thrombosis via increased tissue factor expression, platelet hyperactivity, microparticles release, and endothelial dysfunction. This review discusses the role of uremic toxins derived from gut-microbiota metabolism of dietary tryptophan (indoxyl sulfate (IS), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), kynurenine (KYN)), phenylalanine/tyrosine (p-cresol sulfate (PCS), p-cresol glucuronide (PCG), phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln)) and choline/phosphatidylcholine (trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)) in spontaneously induced thrombosis. The increase in the generation of gut microbial uremic toxins, the activation of aryl hydrocarbon (AhRs) and platelet adrenergic (ARs) receptors, and the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway can serve as potential targets during the prevention of thromboembolic events. They can also help create a new therapeutic approach in the CKD population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on the Uremic Toxin Targeting Mechanism)
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Review
Shiga Toxins: An Update on Host Factors and Biomedical Applications
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 222; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030222 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are classic bacterial toxins and major virulence factors of toxigenic Shigella dysenteriae and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). These toxins recognize a glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77) as their receptor and inhibit protein synthesis in cells by cleaving 28S ribosomal RNA. They are [...] Read more.
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are classic bacterial toxins and major virulence factors of toxigenic Shigella dysenteriae and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). These toxins recognize a glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77) as their receptor and inhibit protein synthesis in cells by cleaving 28S ribosomal RNA. They are the major cause of life-threatening complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), associated with severe cases of EHEC infection, which is the leading cause of acute kidney injury in children. The threat of Stxs is exacerbated by the lack of toxin inhibitors and effective treatment for HUS. Here, we briefly summarize the Stx structure, subtypes, in vitro and in vivo models, Gb3 expression and HUS, and then introduce recent studies using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-wide screens to identify the host cell factors required for Stx action. We also summarize the latest progress in utilizing and engineering Stx components for biomedical applications. Full article
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Article
Combining Patulin with Cadmium Induces Enhanced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030221 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 584
Abstract
Food can be contaminated by various types of contaminants such as mycotoxins and toxic heavy metals. Therefore, it is very likely that simultaneous intake of more than one type of food contaminant by consumers may take place, which provides a strong rationale for [...] Read more.
Food can be contaminated by various types of contaminants such as mycotoxins and toxic heavy metals. Therefore, it is very likely that simultaneous intake of more than one type of food contaminant by consumers may take place, which provides a strong rationale for investigating the combined toxicities of these food contaminants. Patulin is one of the most common food-borne mycotoxins, whereas cadmium is a representative of toxic heavy metals found in food. The liver and kidneys are the main target organ sites for both patulin and cadmium. We hypothesized that simultaneous exposure to patulin and cadmium could produce synergistic hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) and Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 (HEK293) cell lines together with a mouse model were used to explore the combination effect and mechanism. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that the co-exposure of liver or renal cells to patulin and cadmium caused synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro and enhanced liver toxicity in vivo. The synergistic toxicity caused by the co-administration of patulin and cadmium was attributed to the boosted reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and p53 as downstream mediators of oxidative stress contributed to the synergistic toxicity by co-exposure of patulin and cadmium, while p53/JNK1 activation promoted the second-round ROS production through a positive feedback loop. The findings of the present study extend the toxicological knowledge about patulin and cadmium, which could be beneficial to more precisely perform risk assessments on these food contaminants. Full article
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Article
Characterization and Toxicity of Crude Toxins Produced by Cordyceps fumosorosea against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Aphis craccivora (Koch)
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 220; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030220 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 505
Abstract
Cordyceps fumosorosea, an insect pathogenic fungus, produces different toxins/secondary metabolites which can act as pest control agents. This study reports the extraction and characterization of crude mycelial extracts of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 along with their bio-efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis [...] Read more.
Cordyceps fumosorosea, an insect pathogenic fungus, produces different toxins/secondary metabolites which can act as pest control agents. This study reports the extraction and characterization of crude mycelial extracts of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 along with their bio-efficacy against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis craccivora. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometery and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 extracts showed the presence of five major compounds—Trichodermin, 5-Methylmellein, Brevianamide F, Enniatin and Beauvericin—which all may potentially be involved in insecticidal activity. The HPLC analysis of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts and Beauvericin standard showed similar chromatographic peaks, with the content of Beauvericin in the crude toxin being calculated as 0.66 mg/ml. The median lethal concentrations of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts towards first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs of A. craccivora were 46.35, 54.55, 68.94, and 81.92 µg/mL, respectively. The median lethal concentrations of C. fumosorosea mycelial extracts towards first, second, third and fourth instar nymphs of B. tabaci were 62.67, 72.84, 77.40, and 94.40 µg/mL, respectively. Our results demonstrate that bioactive compounds produced by C. fumosorosea isolate SP502 have insecticidal properties and could, therefore, be developed into biopesticides for the management of B. tabaci and A. craccivora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Article
The Impact of the Nephrotoxin Ochratoxin A on Human Renal Cells Studied by a Novel Co-Culture Model Is Influenced by the Presence of Fibroblasts
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030219 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
The kidney is threatened by a lot of potentially toxic substances. To study the influence of the nephrotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) we established a cell co-culture model consisting of human renal proximal tubule cells and fibroblasts. We studied the effect of OTA on [...] Read more.
The kidney is threatened by a lot of potentially toxic substances. To study the influence of the nephrotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) we established a cell co-culture model consisting of human renal proximal tubule cells and fibroblasts. We studied the effect of OTA on cell survival, the expression of genes and/or proteins related to cell death, extracellular matrix and energy homeostasis. OTA-induced necrosis was enhanced in both cell types in the presence of the respective other cell type, whereas OTA-induced apoptosis was independent therefrom. In fibroblasts, but not in tubule cells, a co-culture effect was visible concerning the expression of the cell-cycle-related protein p21. The expression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-indicating protein vimentin was independent from the culture-condition. The expression of the OTA-induced lncRNA WISP1-AS1 was enhanced in co-culture. OTA exposure led to alterations in the expression of genes related to energy metabolism with a glucose-mobilizing effect and a reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins. Together we demonstrate that the reaction of cells can be different in the presence of cells which naturally are close-by, thus enabling a cellular cross-talk. Therefore, to evaluate the toxicity of a substance, it would be an advantage to consider the use of co-cultures instead of mono-cultures. Full article
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Article
Characteristic Distribution of Ciguatoxins in the Edible Parts of a Grouper, Variola louti
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030218 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among [...] Read more.
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most frequently encountered seafood poisoning syndromes; it is caused by the consumption of marine finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The majority of CFP cases result from eating fish flesh, but a traditional belief exists among people that the head and viscera are more toxic and should be avoided. Unlike the viscera, scientific data to support the legendary high toxicity of the head is scarce. We prepared tissue samples from the fillet, head, and eyes taken from five yellow-edged lyretail (Variola louti) individuals sourced from Okinawa, Japan, and analyzed the CTXs by LC-MS/MS. Three CTXs, namely, CTX1B, 52-epi-54-deoxyCTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B, were confirmed in similar proportions. The toxins were distributed nearly evenly in the flesh, prepared separately from the fillet and head. Within the same individual specimen, the flesh in the fillet and the flesh from the head, tested separately, had the same level and composition of toxins. We, therefore, conclude that flesh samples for LC-MS/MS analysis can be taken from any part of the body. However, the tissue surrounding the eyeball displayed CTX levels two to four times higher than those of the flesh. The present study is the first to provide scientific data demonstrating the high toxicity of the eyes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ciguatoxins)
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Review
Biomarkers of Deoxynivalenol Toxicity in Chickens with Special Emphasis on Metabolic and Welfare Parameters
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030217 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is the most widespread mycotoxin in poultry feed worldwide. Long term-exposure from low to moderate DON concentrations can produce alteration in growth performance and impairment of the health status of birds. To evaluate the [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is the most widespread mycotoxin in poultry feed worldwide. Long term-exposure from low to moderate DON concentrations can produce alteration in growth performance and impairment of the health status of birds. To evaluate the efficacy of mycotoxin-detoxifying agent alleviating the toxic effects of DON, the most relevant biomarkers of toxicity of DON in chickens should be firstly determined. The specific biomarker of exposure of DON in chickens is DON-3 sulphate found in different biological matrices (plasma and excreta). Regarding the nonspecific biomarkers called also biomarkers of effect, the most relevant ones are the impairment of the productive parameters, the intestinal morphology (reduction of villus height) and the enlargement of the gizzard. Moreover, the biomarkers of effect related to physiology (decrease of blood proteins, triglycerides, hemoglobin, erythrocytes, and lymphocytes and the increase of alanine transaminase (ALT)), immunity (response to common vaccines and release of some proinflammatory cytokines) and welfare status of the birds (such as the increase of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the stress index), has been reported. This review highlights the available information regarding both types of biomarkers of DON toxicity in chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on Health and Performance in Animals)
Article
Improved Sample Selection and Preparation Methods for Sampling Plans Used to Facilitate Rapid and Reliable Estimation of Aflatoxin in Chicken Feed
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030216 - 16 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic fungal metabolite associated with human and animal diseases, is a natural contaminant encountered in agricultural commodities, food and feed. Heterogeneity of AFB1 makes risk estimation a challenge. To overcome this, novel sample selection, preparation and extraction steps were [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic fungal metabolite associated with human and animal diseases, is a natural contaminant encountered in agricultural commodities, food and feed. Heterogeneity of AFB1 makes risk estimation a challenge. To overcome this, novel sample selection, preparation and extraction steps were designed for representative sampling of chicken feed. Accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantification, linearity, robustness and ruggedness were used as performance criteria to validate this modification and Horwitz function for evaluating precision. A modified sampling protocol that ensured representativeness is documented, including sample selection, sampling tools, random procedures, minimum size of field-collected aggregate samples (primary sampling), procedures for mass reduction to 2 kg laboratory (secondary sampling), 25 g test portion (tertiary sampling) and 1.3 g analytical samples (quaternary sampling). The improved coning and quartering procedure described herein (for secondary and tertiary sampling) has acceptable precision, with a Horwitz ratio (HorRat = 0.3) suitable for splitting of 25 g feed aliquots from laboratory samples (tertiary sampling). The water slurring innovation (quaternary sampling) increased aflatoxin extraction efficiency to 95.1% through reduction of both bias (−4.95) and variability of recovery (1.2–1.4) and improved both intra-laboratory precision (HorRat = 1.2–1.5) and within-laboratory reproducibility (HorRat = 0.9–1.3). Optimal extraction conditions are documented. The improved procedure showed satisfactory performance, good field applicability and reduced sample analysis turnaround time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rapid Detection of Mycotoxin Contamination)
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Article
The Five-Year Prospective Study of Quality of Life in Hemifacial Spasm Treated with Abo-Botulinum Toxin A
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030215 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 649
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the long-term quality of life (QoL) in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients after treating with Abo-botulinum toxin A (Abo-BTX). The study assessed the disease-specific QoL (hemifacial spasm questionnaire 30 items; HFS 30), the involuntary movements (abnormal involuntary movement scale; [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the long-term quality of life (QoL) in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients after treating with Abo-botulinum toxin A (Abo-BTX). The study assessed the disease-specific QoL (hemifacial spasm questionnaire 30 items; HFS 30), the involuntary movements (abnormal involuntary movement scale; AIMS), general health QoL (Medical Outcomes 36-Item Short Form Health Survey; SF-36), and Depression (the Center of Epidemiologic Studies-Depression questionnaire; CES-D). A total of 74 HFS patients were enrolled from 2012 to 2017. The disease-specific QoL; involuntary movements; and the general health domain of SF 36 were significantly improved after injections of Abo-BTX A in the first few years (p < 0.04), but significantly decreased at the fifth year of treatment without significant clinical resistance observed (p < 0.001). Only the general health domain of SF 36 showed persistent improvement over five years (p = 0.02). In summary, Abo-BTX A can improved quality of life in the first few years; however only the general health domain of SF-36 showed significant improvement over five years (p = 0.02). No clinical resistance was observed. Full article
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Article
A Fumonisin Prevention Tool for Targeting and Ranking Agroclimatic Conditions Favoring Exposure in French Maize-Growing Areas
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030214 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The levels of fumonisins (FUMO)—mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides—in maize for food and feed are subject to European Union regulations. Compliance with the regulations requires the targeting of, among others, the agroclimatic factors influencing fungal contamination and FUMO production. Arvalis-Institut du végétal [...] Read more.
The levels of fumonisins (FUMO)—mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides—in maize for food and feed are subject to European Union regulations. Compliance with the regulations requires the targeting of, among others, the agroclimatic factors influencing fungal contamination and FUMO production. Arvalis-Institut du végétal has created a national, multiyear database for maize, based on field survey data collected since 2003. This database contains information about agricultural practices, climatic conditions and FUMO concentrations at harvest for 738 maize fields distributed throughout French maize-growing regions. A linear mixed model approach highlights the presence of borers and the use of a late variety, high temperatures in July and October, and a water deficit during the maize cycle as creating conditions favoring maize contamination with Fusarium verticillioides. It is thus possible to target a combination of risk factors, consisting of this climatic sequence associated with agricultural practices of interest. The effects of the various possible agroclimatic combinations can be compared, grouped and classified as promoting very low to high FUMO concentrations, possibly exceeding the regulatory threshold. These findings should facilitate the creation of a national, informative and easy-to-use prevention tool for producers and agricultural cooperatives to manage the sanitary quality of their harvest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins)
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Review
Botulinum Toxin A and Osteosarcopenia in Experimental Animals: A Scoping Review
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030213 - 14 Mar 2021
Viewed by 726
Abstract
We conducted a scoping review to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A) on bone morphology. We investigated if the muscle atrophy associated with Injection of BoNT-A had effects on the neighboring bone. We used the search terms: osteopenia, [...] Read more.
We conducted a scoping review to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A) on bone morphology. We investigated if the muscle atrophy associated with Injection of BoNT-A had effects on the neighboring bone. We used the search terms: osteopenia, bone atrophy, Botulinum Toxin A, Micro-CT, mice or rat. The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, PubMed and the Cochrane Library, between 1990 and 2020. After removal of duplicates, 228 abstracts were identified of which 49 studies satisfied our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The majority of studies (41/49) reported a quantitative reduction in at least one measure of bone architecture based on Micro-CT. The reduction in the ratio of bone volume to tissue volume varied from 11% to 81% (mean 43%) according to the experimental set up and study time points. While longer term studies showed muscle recovery, no study showed complete recovery of all bone properties at the termination of the study. In experimental animals, intramuscular injection of BoNT-A resulted in acute muscle atrophy and acute degradation of the neighboring bone segment. These findings may have implications for clinical protocols in the use of Botulinum Toxin in children with cerebral palsy, with restraint recommended in injection protocols and consideration for monitoring bone density. Clinical studies in children with cerebral palsy receiving injections of Botulinum are indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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Article
Occurrence and Toxicogenetic Profiling of Clostridium perfringens in Buffalo and Cattle: An Update from Pakistan
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030212 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive bacterium that possess seven toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) that are responsible for the production of six major toxins, i.e., α, β, ε, ι, CPE, and NetB. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive bacterium that possess seven toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) that are responsible for the production of six major toxins, i.e., α, β, ε, ι, CPE, and NetB. The aim of this study is to find out the occurrence of toxinotypes in buffalo and cattle of Punjab province in Pakistan and their corresponding toxin-encoding genes from the isolated toxinotypes. To accomplish this aim, six districts in Punjab province were selected (i.e., Lahore, Sahiwal, Cheecha Watni, Bhakkar, Dera Ghazi Khan, and Bahawalpur) and a total of 240 buffalo and 240 cattle were selected for the collection of samples. From isolation and molecular analysis (16S rRNA), it was observed that out of seven toxinotypes (A–G), two toxinotypes (A and D) were found at most, whereas other toxinotypes, i.e., B, C, E, F, and G, were not found. The most frequently occurring toxinotype was type A (buffalo: 149/240; cattle: 157/240) whereas type D (buffalo: 8/240 cattle: 7/240) was found to occur the least. Genes encoding toxinotypes A and D were cpa and etx, respectively, whereas genes encoding other toxinotypes were not observed. The occurrence of isolated toxinotypes was studied using response surface methodology, which suggested a considerable occurrence of the isolated toxinotypes (A and D) in both buffalo and cattle. Association between type A and type D was found to be significant among the isolated toxinotypes in both buffalo and cattle (p ≤ 0.05). Correlation was also found to be positive and significant between type A and type D. C. perfringens exhibits a range of toxinotypes that can be diagnosed via genotyping, which is more reliable than classical toxinotyping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Microbial Toxins on Animal Health and Food Safety)
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Article
Comparison of Preclinical Properties of Several Available Antivenoms in the Search for Effective Treatment of Vipera ammodytes and Vipera berus Envenoming
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030211 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 527
Abstract
Snakebites are a relatively rare medical emergency in Europe. In more than half of the annual cases caused by Vipera ammodytes, Vipera berus, and Vipera aspis, immunotherapy with animal-derived antivenom is indicated. Among eight products recently identified as available against [...] Read more.
Snakebites are a relatively rare medical emergency in Europe. In more than half of the annual cases caused by Vipera ammodytes, Vipera berus, and Vipera aspis, immunotherapy with animal-derived antivenom is indicated. Among eight products recently identified as available against European medically relevant species, only Zagreb antivenom, Viperfav, and ViperaTAb have been used almost exclusively for decades. Zagreb antivenom comprises V. ammodytes-specific F(ab′)2 fragments. Viperfav is a polyspecific preparation based on F(ab′)2 fragments against V. aspis, V. berus, and V. ammodytes venoms. ViperaTAb contains Fab fragments against the venom of V. berus. In 2014 the production of Zagreb antivenom was discontinued. Additionally, in the period of 2017 to 2018 a shortage of Viperfav occurred. Due to a lack of the product indicated for the treatment of V. ammodytes bites, other antivenoms were implemented into clinical practice without comparative assessment of their eligibility. The aim of our work was to identify a high-quality antivenom that might ensure the successful treatment of V. ammodytes and V. berus bites at the preclinical level. Differentiation between bites from these two species is difficult and unreliable in clinical practice, so the availability of a unique antivenom applicable in the treatment of envenoming caused by both species would be the most advantageous for Southeastern Europe. Zagreb antivenom, Viperfav, and ViperaTAb, as well as Viper venom antitoxin for V. berus envenoming and the in-development Inoserp Europe, which was designed to treat envenoming caused by all medically important European snakes, were comparatively tested for the first time. Emphasis was placed on their physicochemical properties, primarily purity and aggregate content, as well as their in vivo protective efficacies. As Zagreb antivenom is no longer available on the European market, Viperfav is the highest-quality product currently available and the only antivenom whose neutralisation potency against V. ammodytes and V. berus venoms was above regulatory requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Article
α-Solanine Inhibits Proliferation, Invasion, and Migration, and Induces Apoptosis in Human Choriocarcinoma JEG-3 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030210 - 13 Mar 2021
Viewed by 524
Abstract
α-Solanine, a bioactive compound mainly found in potato, exhibits anti-cancer activity towards multiple cancer cells. However, its effects on human choriocarcinoma have not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of α-solanine on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma [...] Read more.
α-Solanine, a bioactive compound mainly found in potato, exhibits anti-cancer activity towards multiple cancer cells. However, its effects on human choriocarcinoma have not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of α-solanine on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human choriocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that α-solanine, at concentrations of 30 μM or below, did not affect the cell viability of the choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. However, colony formation was significantly decreased and cell apoptosis was increased in response to 30 μM α-solanine. In addition, α-solanine (30 μM) reduced the migration and invasion abilities of JEG-3 cells, which was associated with a downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2/9. The in vivo findings provided further evidence of the inhibition of α-solanine on choriocarcinoma tumor growth. α-Solanine suppressed the xenograft tumor growth of JEG-3 cells, resulting in smaller tumor volumes and lower tumor weights. Apoptosis was promoted in xenograft tumors of α-solanine-treated mice. Moreover, α-solanine downregulated proliferative cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2 levels and promoted the expression of Bax. Collectively, α-solanine inhibits the growth, migration, and invasion of human JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells, which may be associated with the induction of apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
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Article
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall-Based Adsorbent Reduces Aflatoxin B1 Absorption in Rats
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030209 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxins that can affect livestock health and performance upon consumption of contaminated feedstuffs. To mitigate the negative effects of mycotoxins, sequestering agents, adsorbents, or binders can be included to feed to interact with toxins, aiding their passage through the [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are naturally occurring toxins that can affect livestock health and performance upon consumption of contaminated feedstuffs. To mitigate the negative effects of mycotoxins, sequestering agents, adsorbents, or binders can be included to feed to interact with toxins, aiding their passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and reducing their bioavailability. The parietal cell wall components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been found to interact in vitro with mycotoxins, such as, but not limited to, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and to improve animal performance when added to contaminated diets in vivo. The present study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetics of the absorption of radiolabeled AFB1 in rats in the presence of a yeast cell wall-based adsorbent (YCW) compared with that in the presence of the clay-based binder hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS). The results of the initial pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the absorption process across the GI tract was relatively slow, occurring over a matter of hours rather than minutes. The inclusion of mycotoxin binders increased the recovery of radiolabeled AFB1 in the small intestine, cecum, and colon at 5 and 10 h, revealing that they prevented AFB1 absorption compared with a control diet. Additionally, the accumulation of radiolabeled AFB1 was more significant in the blood plasma, kidney, and liver of animals fed the control diet, again showing the ability of the binders to reduce the assimilation of AFB1 into the body. The results showed the potential of YCW in reducing the absorption of AFB1 in vivo, and in protecting against the damaging effects of AFB1 contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
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Article
Curcumin Alleviates LPS-Induced Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Apoptosis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells via the NFE2L2 Signaling Pathway
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030208 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin, which may cause immune response and inflammation of bovine mammary glands. Mastitis impairs animal health and results in economic loss. Curcumin (CUR) is a naturally occurring diketone compound, which has attracted widespread attention as a potential anti-inflammatory antioxidant. [...] Read more.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin, which may cause immune response and inflammation of bovine mammary glands. Mastitis impairs animal health and results in economic loss. Curcumin (CUR) is a naturally occurring diketone compound, which has attracted widespread attention as a potential anti-inflammatory antioxidant. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether CUR can reduce the damage of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T) induced by LPS and its underlying molecular mechanism. The MAC-T cell line was treated with different concentrations of LPS and CUR for 24 h. The results showed that CUR rescued the decrease of MAC-T cell viability and cell damage induced by LPS. At the same time, 10 µM CUR and 100 µg/mL LPS were used to treat the cells in the follow-up study. The results showed CUR treatment reduced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-6 and IL-1β) and the rate of apoptosis induced by LPS. These effects were associated with the activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway coupled with inactivation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inflammatory and caspase/Bcl2 apoptotic pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histological Effects of Endotoxins)
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Article
The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite at Point-of-Use to Remove Microcystins from Water Containers
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030207 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
Most conventional water treatment plants are not sufficiently equipped to treat both intracellular and extracellular Microcystins in drinking water. However, the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in removing Microcystin in containers at the point-of-use is not yet known. This study aimed to assess point-of-use [...] Read more.
Most conventional water treatment plants are not sufficiently equipped to treat both intracellular and extracellular Microcystins in drinking water. However, the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in removing Microcystin in containers at the point-of-use is not yet known. This study aimed to assess point-of-use water container treatment using bleach or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and to assess the health problems associated with microcystins. Thirty-nine percent (29 of 74) of the total selected households were randomly selected to receive and treat their stored container water with sodium hypochlorite. The level of microcystin in the container water was measured after 30 min of contact with sodium hypochlorite. Microcystin concentrations in both the blooming and decaying seasons were higher (mean 1.10, 95% CI 0.46–1.67 µg/L and mean 1.14, 95% CI 0.65–1.63 µg/L, respectively) than the acceptable limit of 1 µg/L in households that did not treat their water with NaOCl, whilst in those that did, there was a significant reduction in the microcystin concentration (mean 0.07, 95% CI 0.00–0.16 µg/L and mean 0.18, 95% CI 0.00–0.45 µg/L). In conclusion, sodium hypochlorite treatment decreased microcystin s to an acceptable level and reduced the related health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Review
Wasp Venom Biochemical Components and Their Potential in Biological Applications and Nanotechnological Interventions
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030206 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Wasps, members of the order Hymenoptera, are distributed in different parts of the world, including Brazil, Thailand, Japan, Korea, and Argentina. The lifestyles of the wasps are solitary and social. Social wasps use venom as a defensive measure to protect their colonies, whereas [...] Read more.
Wasps, members of the order Hymenoptera, are distributed in different parts of the world, including Brazil, Thailand, Japan, Korea, and Argentina. The lifestyles of the wasps are solitary and social. Social wasps use venom as a defensive measure to protect their colonies, whereas solitary wasps use their venom to capture prey. Chemically, wasp venom possesses a wide variety of enzymes, proteins, peptides, volatile compounds, and bioactive constituents, which include phospholipase A2, antigen 5, mastoparan, and decoralin. The bioactive constituents have anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the limited quantities of wasp venom and the scarcity of advanced strategies for the synthesis of wasp venom’s bioactive compounds remain a challenge facing the effective usage of wasp venom. Solid-phase peptide synthesis is currently used to prepare wasp venom peptides and their analogs such as mastoparan, anoplin, decoralin, polybia-CP, and polydim-I. The goal of the current review is to highlight the medicinal value of the wasp venom compounds, as well as limitations and possibilities. Wasp venom could be a potential and novel natural source to develop innovative pharmaceuticals and new agents for drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Discovery from Animal Venoms)
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Article
Rat Tumour Histopathology Associated with Experimental Chronic Dietary Exposure to Ochratoxin A in Prediction of the Mycotoxin’s Risk for Human Cancers
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030205 - 12 Mar 2021
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Mammalian animal toxicity of ochratoxin A (OTA) has focused largely in the past half-century on pigs because of initial recognition of it as a principal cause of intermittent growth suppression and renal disease caused by mouldy feed. Subsequent classical toxicology has used laboratory [...] Read more.
Mammalian animal toxicity of ochratoxin A (OTA) has focused largely in the past half-century on pigs because of initial recognition of it as a principal cause of intermittent growth suppression and renal disease caused by mouldy feed. Subsequent classical toxicology has used laboratory rodents because renal pathology in pigs raised questions concerning possible involvement in the human idiopathic bilateral renal atrophy of Balkan endemic nephropathy for which OTA was a focus of attention for human nephropathy through 1980s and into 2000s. Emphasis on human nephropathy has more recently concerned the plant metabolite aristolochic acid. Recognition that agricultural management can often minimise food and feed-stuff spoilage by OTA-producing Aspergilli and Penicillia has moderated some of the risks for animals. Legislation for human food safety combined with sophisticated analysis generally provides safety in the developed world. Chronic experimental exposure of male rats, in the absence of clinical dis-ease, specifically causes renal cancer. The possibility of this as a unique model for the human has generated considerable experimental evidence which may be more directly relevant for carcinogenesis in the complex kidney than that obtained from biochemical toxicities in vitro. Nevertheless, there does not appear to be any case of human renal or urinary tract cancer for which there is verified etiological proof for causation by OTA, contrary to much claim in the literature. To contribute to such debate, histopathology review of OTA/rat renal cancers, augmented where appropriate by immune profiles, has been completed for all remaining tumours in our research archive. Overall consistency of positivity for vimentin, is matched with occasional positives either for CD10 or the cytokeratin MNF 116. The current situation is discussed. Suggestion that OTA could cause human testicular cancer has also been challenged as unsupported by any experimental findings in rats, where the Leydig cell tumour immune profile does not match that of human germ cell neoplasms. Full article
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Review
Physical and Chemical Methods for Reduction in Aflatoxin Content of Feed and Food
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030204 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1001
Abstract
Aflatoxins (AFs) are among the most harmful fungal secondary metabolites imposing serious health risks on both household animals and humans. The more frequent occurrence of aflatoxins in the feed and food chain is clearly foreseeable as a consequence of the extreme weather conditions [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins (AFs) are among the most harmful fungal secondary metabolites imposing serious health risks on both household animals and humans. The more frequent occurrence of aflatoxins in the feed and food chain is clearly foreseeable as a consequence of the extreme weather conditions recorded most recently worldwide. Furthermore, production parameters, such as unadjusted variety use and improper cultural practices, can also increase the incidence of contamination. In current aflatoxin control measures, emphasis is put on prevention including a plethora of pre-harvest methods, introduced to control Aspergillus infestations and to avoid the deleterious effects of aflatoxins on public health. Nevertheless, the continuous evaluation and improvement of post-harvest methods to combat these hazardous secondary metabolites are also required. Already in-use and emerging physical methods, such as pulsed electric fields and other nonthermal treatments as well as interventions with chemical agents such as acids, enzymes, gases, and absorbents in animal husbandry have been demonstrated as effective in reducing mycotoxins in feed and food. Although most of them have no disadvantageous effect either on nutritional properties or food safety, further research is needed to ensure the expected efficacy. Nevertheless, we can envisage the rapid spread of these easy-to-use, cost-effective, and safe post-harvest tools during storage and food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins: Decontamination and Adsorption)
Article
Multiple Mycotoxins in Kenyan Rice
Toxins 2021, 13(3), 203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030203 - 11 Mar 2021
Viewed by 866
Abstract
Multiple mycotoxins were tested in milled rice samples (n = 200) from traders at different milling points within the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya. Traders provided the names of the cultivar, village where paddy was cultivated, sampling locality, miller, and month of [...] Read more.
Multiple mycotoxins were tested in milled rice samples (n = 200) from traders at different milling points within the Mwea Irrigation Scheme in Kenya. Traders provided the names of the cultivar, village where paddy was cultivated, sampling locality, miller, and month of paddy harvest between 2018 and 2019. Aflatoxin, citrinin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A, diacetoxyscirpenol, T2, HT2, and sterigmatocystin were analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS). Deoxynivalenol was tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mycotoxins occurred in ranges and frequencies in the following order: sterigmatocystin (0–7 ppb; 74.5%), aflatoxin (0–993 ppb; 55.5%), citrinin (0–9 ppb; 55.5%), ochratoxin A (0–110 ppb; 30%), fumonisin (0–76 ppb; 26%), diacetoxyscirpenol (0–24 ppb; 20.5%), and combined HT2 + T2 (0–62 ppb; 14.5%), and deoxynivalenol was detected in only one sample at 510 ppb. Overall, low amounts of toxins were observed in rice with a low frequency of samples above the regulatory limits for aflatoxin, 13.5%; ochratoxin A, 6%; and HT2 + T2, 0.5%. The maximum co-contamination was for 3.5% samples with six toxins in different combinations. The rice cultivar, paddy environment, time of harvest, and millers influenced the occurrence of different mycotoxins. There is a need to establish integrated approaches for the mitigation of mycotoxin accumulation in the Kenyan rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins and Food)
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