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Zearalenone Induces Endothelial Cell Apoptosis through Activation of a Cytosolic Ca2+/ERK1/2/p53/Caspase 3 Signaling Pathway
Article

Zearalenone Induces Apoptosis and Cytoprotective Autophagy in Chicken Granulosa Cells by PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK Signaling Pathways

1
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China, Ministry of Education, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
2
Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
3
College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 10 March 2021
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin found in several food commodities worldwide. ZEA causes reproductive disorders, genotoxicity, and testicular toxicity in animals. However, little is known about the functions of apoptosis and autophagy after exposure to ZEA in granulosa cells. This study investigated the effects of ZEA on chicken granulosa cells. The results show that ZEA at different doses significantly inhibited the growth of chicken granulosa cells by inducing apoptosis. ZEA treatment up-regulated Bax and downregulated Bcl-2 expression, promoted cytochrome c release into the cytosol, and triggered mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Consequently, caspase-9 and downstream effector caspase-3 were activated, resulting in chicken granulosa cells apoptosis. ZEA treatment also upregulated LC3-II and Beclin-1 expression, suggesting that ZEA induced a high level of autophagy. Pretreatment with chloroquine (an autophagy inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagy inducer) increased and decreased the rate of apoptosis, respectively, in contrast with other ZEA-treated groups. Autophagy delayed apoptosis in the ZEA-treated cells. Therefore, autophagy may prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis by reducing ZEA-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, our results further show that the autophagy was stimulated by ZEA through PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in chicken granulosa cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; apoptosis; autophagy; granulosa cells; PI3K-AKT-mTOR; MAPK; chicken zearalenone; apoptosis; autophagy; granulosa cells; PI3K-AKT-mTOR; MAPK; chicken
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Han, S.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, M.; Zhu, Q.; Zhang, K.; Yin, H. Zearalenone Induces Apoptosis and Cytoprotective Autophagy in Chicken Granulosa Cells by PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK Signaling Pathways. Toxins 2021, 13, 199. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030199

AMA Style

Zhu Y, Wang H, Wang J, Han S, Zhang Y, Ma M, Zhu Q, Zhang K, Yin H. Zearalenone Induces Apoptosis and Cytoprotective Autophagy in Chicken Granulosa Cells by PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK Signaling Pathways. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):199. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030199

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Yifeng, Heng Wang, Jianping Wang, Shunshun Han, Yao Zhang, Menggen Ma, Qing Zhu, Keying Zhang, and Huadong Yin. 2021. "Zearalenone Induces Apoptosis and Cytoprotective Autophagy in Chicken Granulosa Cells by PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK Signaling Pathways" Toxins 13, no. 3: 199. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030199

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