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Article

The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite at Point-of-Use to Remove Microcystins from Water Containers

Department of Environmental Health, Tshwane University of Technology, Staatsartillerie Road, Pretoria West, P/Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 17 February 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Most conventional water treatment plants are not sufficiently equipped to treat both intracellular and extracellular Microcystins in drinking water. However, the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in removing Microcystin in containers at the point-of-use is not yet known. This study aimed to assess point-of-use water container treatment using bleach or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and to assess the health problems associated with microcystins. Thirty-nine percent (29 of 74) of the total selected households were randomly selected to receive and treat their stored container water with sodium hypochlorite. The level of microcystin in the container water was measured after 30 min of contact with sodium hypochlorite. Microcystin concentrations in both the blooming and decaying seasons were higher (mean 1.10, 95% CI 0.46–1.67 µg/L and mean 1.14, 95% CI 0.65–1.63 µg/L, respectively) than the acceptable limit of 1 µg/L in households that did not treat their water with NaOCl, whilst in those that did, there was a significant reduction in the microcystin concentration (mean 0.07, 95% CI 0.00–0.16 µg/L and mean 0.18, 95% CI 0.00–0.45 µg/L). In conclusion, sodium hypochlorite treatment decreased microcystin s to an acceptable level and reduced the related health problems. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystins; point-of-use; sodium hypochlorite; water container; household drinking water microcystins; point-of-use; sodium hypochlorite; water container; household drinking water
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mokoena, M.M.; Mudau, L.S.; Mokgobu, M.I.; Mukhola, M.S. The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite at Point-of-Use to Remove Microcystins from Water Containers. Toxins 2021, 13, 207. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030207

AMA Style

Mokoena MM, Mudau LS, Mokgobu MI, Mukhola MS. The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite at Point-of-Use to Remove Microcystins from Water Containers. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):207. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030207

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mokoena, Matodzi M., Lutendo S. Mudau, Matlou I. Mokgobu, and Murembiwa S. Mukhola 2021. "The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite at Point-of-Use to Remove Microcystins from Water Containers" Toxins 13, no. 3: 207. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030207

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