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Review

Shiga Toxins: An Update on Host Factors and Biomedical Applications

by 1,2,3,*, 2,3, 2,3 and 2,3,*
1
Department of Nephrology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2
Department of Urology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 13 March 2021 / Accepted: 15 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are classic bacterial toxins and major virulence factors of toxigenic Shigella dysenteriae and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). These toxins recognize a glycosphingolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3/CD77) as their receptor and inhibit protein synthesis in cells by cleaving 28S ribosomal RNA. They are the major cause of life-threatening complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), associated with severe cases of EHEC infection, which is the leading cause of acute kidney injury in children. The threat of Stxs is exacerbated by the lack of toxin inhibitors and effective treatment for HUS. Here, we briefly summarize the Stx structure, subtypes, in vitro and in vivo models, Gb3 expression and HUS, and then introduce recent studies using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-wide screens to identify the host cell factors required for Stx action. We also summarize the latest progress in utilizing and engineering Stx components for biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Shiga toxin; EHEC; Shigella; hemolytic uremic syndrome; Gb3; LAPTM4A; TM9SF2; immunotoxin; bacterial toxins; toxins Shiga toxin; EHEC; Shigella; hemolytic uremic syndrome; Gb3; LAPTM4A; TM9SF2; immunotoxin; bacterial toxins; toxins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Tian, S.; Thaker, H.; Dong, M. Shiga Toxins: An Update on Host Factors and Biomedical Applications. Toxins 2021, 13, 222. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030222

AMA Style

Liu Y, Tian S, Thaker H, Dong M. Shiga Toxins: An Update on Host Factors and Biomedical Applications. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):222. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030222

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yang, Songhai Tian, Hatim Thaker, and Min Dong. 2021. "Shiga Toxins: An Update on Host Factors and Biomedical Applications" Toxins 13, no. 3: 222. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030222

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