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Article

Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus in a Medium Mimicking a Diabetic Foot Environment

1
Virulence Bactérienne et Infections Chroniques, INSERM U1047, Université de Montpellier, 30908 Nîmes, France
2
Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, ENS Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69365 Lyon, France
3
Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Centre National de Référence des Staphylocoques, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Hospices Civils de Lyon, 69365 Lyon, France
4
Unité des Toxines Bactériennes, UMR CNRS 2001, Institut Pasteur, 75015 Paris, France
5
Virulence Bactérienne et Infections Chroniques, INSERM U1047, Université de Montpellier, Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, CHU Nîmes, Univ Montpellier, 30908 Nîmes, France
6
Virulence Bactérienne et Infections Chroniques, INSERM U1047, Université de Montpellier, Department of Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, CHU Nîmes, Univ Montpellier, 30908 Nîmes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance to Staphylococcus aureus Toxins)
Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent pathogen isolated from diabetic foot infections (DFIs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate its behavior in an in vitro model mimicking the conditions encountered in DFI. Four clinical S. aureus strains were cultivated for 16 weeks in a specific environment based on the wound-like medium biofilm model. The adaptation of isolates was evaluated as follows: by Caenorhabditis elegans model (to evaluate virulence); by quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) (to evaluate expression of the main virulence genes); and by Biofilm Ring test® (to assess the biofilm formation). After 16 weeks, the four S. aureus had adapted their metabolism, with the development of small colony variants and the loss of β-hemolysin expression. The in vivo nematode model suggested a decrease of virulence, confirmed by qRT-PCRs, showing a significant decrease of expression of the main staphylococcal virulence genes tested, notably the toxin-encoding genes. An increased expression of genes involved in adhesion and biofilm was noted. Our data based on an in vitro model confirm the impact of environment on the adaptation switch of S. aureus to prolonged stress environmental conditions. These results contribute to explore and characterize the virulence of S. aureus in chronic wounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptation; biofilm; diabetic foot infection; EDIN; in vitro model; nematode; Panton–Valentin leukocidin; Staphylococcus aureus; virulence adaptation; biofilm; diabetic foot infection; EDIN; in vitro model; nematode; Panton–Valentin leukocidin; Staphylococcus aureus; virulence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pouget, C.; Gustave, C.-A.; Ngba-Essebe, C.; Laurent, F.; Lemichez, E.; Tristan, A.; Sotto, A.; Dunyach-Rémy, C.; Lavigne, J.-P. Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus in a Medium Mimicking a Diabetic Foot Environment. Toxins 2021, 13, 230. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030230

AMA Style

Pouget C, Gustave C-A, Ngba-Essebe C, Laurent F, Lemichez E, Tristan A, Sotto A, Dunyach-Rémy C, Lavigne J-P. Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus in a Medium Mimicking a Diabetic Foot Environment. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):230. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030230

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pouget, Cassandra, Claude-Alexandre Gustave, Christelle Ngba-Essebe, Frédéric Laurent, Emmanuel Lemichez, Anne Tristan, Albert Sotto, Catherine Dunyach-Rémy, and Jean-Philippe Lavigne. 2021. "Adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus in a Medium Mimicking a Diabetic Foot Environment" Toxins 13, no. 3: 230. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030230

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