Next Article in Journal
Potency Testing of Venoms and Antivenoms in Embryonated Eggs: An Ethical Alternative to Animal Testing
Next Article in Special Issue
In Vitro Mechanism Assessment of Zearalenone Removal by Plant-Derived Lactobacillus plantarum BCC 47723
Previous Article in Journal
Venom Use in Eulipotyphlans: An Evolutionary and Ecological Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mycotoxin Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detoxifying Agents in Pig Production with an Emphasis on Deoxynivalenol
Article

Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities

1
Department of Animal Science, Food and Nutrition (DIANA), Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza, Italy
2
Department of Agriculture Science, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
3
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
Sixty-four corn silages were characterized for chemicals, bacterial community, and concentrations of several fungal metabolites. Silages were grouped in five clusters, based on detected mycotoxins, and they were characterized for being contaminated by (1) low levels of Aspergillus- and Penicillium-mycotoxins; (2) low levels of fumonisins and other Fusarium-mycotoxins; (3) high levels of Aspergillus-mycotoxins; (4) high levels of non-regulated Fusarium-mycotoxins; (5) high levels of fumonisins and their metabolites. Altersetin was detected in clusters 1, 3, and 5. Rugulusovin or brevianamide F were detected in several samples, with the highest concentration in cluster 3. Emodin was detected in more than 50.0% of samples of clusters 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Kojic acid occurred mainly in clusters 1 and 2 at very low concentrations. Regarding Fusarium mycotoxins, high occurrences were observed for FB3, FB4, FA1, whereas the average concentrations of FB6 and FA2 were lower than 12.4 µg/kg dry matter. Emerging Fusarium-produced mycotoxins, such as siccanol, moniliformin, equisetin, epiequisetin and bikaverin were detected in the majority of analyzed corn silages. Pestalotin, oxaline, phenopirrozin and questiomycin A were detected at high incidences. Concluding, this work highlighted that corn silages could be contaminated by a high number of regulated and emerging mycotoxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: forage; mold; dairy cow; milk forage; mold; dairy cow; milk
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gallo, A.; Ghilardelli, F.; Atzori, A.S.; Zara, S.; Novak, B.; Faas, J.; Fancello, F. Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities. Toxins 2021, 13, 232. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030232

AMA Style

Gallo A, Ghilardelli F, Atzori AS, Zara S, Novak B, Faas J, Fancello F. Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities. Toxins. 2021; 13(3):232. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gallo, Antonio, Francesca Ghilardelli, Alberto S. Atzori, Severino Zara, Barbara Novak, Johannes Faas, and Francesco Fancello. 2021. "Co-Occurrence of Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Corn Silage: Relationships with Fermentation Quality and Bacterial Communities" Toxins 13, no. 3: 232. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13030232

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop