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Article

Acute Toxicity of Gambierone and Quantitative Analysis of Gambierones Produced by Cohabitating Benthic Dinoflagellates

1
Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
2
New Zealand Food Safety Science and Research Centre, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
3
School of Science, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
4
AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 April 2021 / Revised: 29 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 May 2021 / Published: 5 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Toxins from Harmful Algae and Seafood Safety)
Understanding the toxicity and production rates of the various secondary metabolites produced by Gambierdiscus and cohabitating benthic dinoflagellates is essential to unravelling the complexities associated with ciguatera poisoning. In the present study, a sulphated cyclic polyether, gambierone, was purified from Gambierdiscus cheloniae CAWD232 and its acute toxicity was determined using intraperitoneal injection into mice. It was shown to be of low toxicity with an LD50 of 2.4 mg/kg, 9600 times less toxic than the commonly implicated Pacific ciguatoxin-1B, indicating it is unlikely to play a role in ciguatera poisoning. In addition, the production of gambierone and 44-methylgambierone was assessed from 20 isolates of ten Gambierdiscus, two Coolia and two Fukuyoa species using quantitative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Gambierone was produced by seven Gambierdiscus species, ranging from 1 to 87 pg/cell, and one species from each of the genera Coolia and Fukuyoa, ranging from 2 to 17 pg/cell. The production of 44-methylgambierone ranged from 5 to 270 pg/cell and was ubiquitous to all Gambierdiscus species tested, as well as both species of Coolia and Fukuyoa. The relative production ratio of these two secondary metabolites revealed that only two species produced more gambierone, G. carpenteri CAWD237 and G. cheloniae CAWD232. This represents the first report of gambierone acute toxicity and production by these cohabitating benthic dinoflagellate species. While these results demonstrate that gambierones are unlikely to pose a risk to human health, further research is required to understand if they bioaccumulate in the marine food web. View Full-Text
Keywords: ciguatera poisoning; liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; LD50; Gambierdiscus; Coolia; Fukuyoa ciguatera poisoning; liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; LD50; Gambierdiscus; Coolia; Fukuyoa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murray, J.S.; Finch, S.C.; Puddick, J.; Rhodes, L.L.; Harwood, D.T.; van Ginkel, R.; Prinsep, M.R. Acute Toxicity of Gambierone and Quantitative Analysis of Gambierones Produced by Cohabitating Benthic Dinoflagellates. Toxins 2021, 13, 333. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050333

AMA Style

Murray JS, Finch SC, Puddick J, Rhodes LL, Harwood DT, van Ginkel R, Prinsep MR. Acute Toxicity of Gambierone and Quantitative Analysis of Gambierones Produced by Cohabitating Benthic Dinoflagellates. Toxins. 2021; 13(5):333. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050333

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murray, J. S., Sarah C. Finch, Jonathan Puddick, Lesley L. Rhodes, D. T. Harwood, Roel van Ginkel, and Michèle R. Prinsep 2021. "Acute Toxicity of Gambierone and Quantitative Analysis of Gambierones Produced by Cohabitating Benthic Dinoflagellates" Toxins 13, no. 5: 333. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13050333

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