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Article

‘Floc and Sink’ Technique Removes Cyanobacteria and Microcystins from Tropical Reservoir Water

1
Laboratory of Ecology and Physiology of Phytoplankton, Department of Plant Biology, University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524—PHLC Sala 511a, Rio de Janeiro 20550-900, Brazil
2
Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil
3
Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality Management Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), P.O. Box 50, 6700 AB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 8 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
Combining coagulants with ballast (natural soil or modified clay) to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising tool to mitigate nuisance blooms. Nevertheless, the possible effects of this technique on different toxin-producing cyanobacteria species have not been thoroughly investigated. This laboratory study evaluated the potential effects of the “Floc and Sink” technique on releasing microcystins (MC) from the precipitated biomass. A combined treatment of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) with lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) and/or local red soil (LRS) was applied to the bloom material (mainly Dolichospermum circinalis and Microcystis aeruginosa) of a tropical reservoir. Intra and extracellular MC and biomass removal were evaluated. PAC alone was not efficient to remove the biomass, while PAC + LMB + LRS was the most efficient and removed 4.3–7.5 times more biomass than other treatments. Intracellular MC concentrations ranged between 12 and 2.180 µg L−1 independent from the biomass. PAC treatment increased extracellular MC concentrations from 3.5 to 6 times. However, when combined with ballast, extracellular MC was up to 4.2 times lower in the top of the test tubes. Nevertheless, PAC + LRS and PAC + LMB + LRS treatments showed extracellular MC concentration eight times higher than controls in the bottom. Our results showed that Floc and Sink appears to be more promising in removing cyanobacteria and extracellular MC from the water column than a sole coagulant (PAC). View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic bloom; cyanobacteria mitigation; geo-engineering; Dolichospermum; Microcystis; eutrophication control toxic bloom; cyanobacteria mitigation; geo-engineering; Dolichospermum; Microcystis; eutrophication control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arruda, R.S.; Noyma, N.P.; de Magalhães, L.; Mesquita, M.C.B.; de Almeida, É.C.; Pinto, E.; Lürling, M.; Marinho, M.M. ‘Floc and Sink’ Technique Removes Cyanobacteria and Microcystins from Tropical Reservoir Water. Toxins 2021, 13, 405. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060405

AMA Style

Arruda RS, Noyma NP, de Magalhães L, Mesquita MCB, de Almeida ÉC, Pinto E, Lürling M, Marinho MM. ‘Floc and Sink’ Technique Removes Cyanobacteria and Microcystins from Tropical Reservoir Water. Toxins. 2021; 13(6):405. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060405

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arruda, Renan S., Natália P. Noyma, Leonardo de Magalhães, Marcella C.B. Mesquita, Éryka C. de Almeida, Ernani Pinto, Miquel Lürling, and Marcelo M. Marinho 2021. "‘Floc and Sink’ Technique Removes Cyanobacteria and Microcystins from Tropical Reservoir Water" Toxins 13, no. 6: 405. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13060405

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