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Article

Effect of Popcorn (Zea mays var. everta) Popping Mode (Microwave, Hot Oil, and Hot Air) on Fumonisins and Deoxynivalenol Contamination Levels

1
Nataïs, 32130 Bézéril, France
2
Equipe Biosynthèse et Toxicité des Mycotoxines, ENVT, UMR Toxalim, Université de Toulouse, 31000 Toulouse, France
3
Physiologie, Pathologie et Génétique Végétales (PPGV), Toulouse University, INP-Purpan, 31300 Toulouse, France
4
Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle (LCA), Toulouse University, INRAE, INPT, INP-Purpan, 31000 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 9 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are produced by molds during their development. According to fungal physiological particularities, mycotoxins can contaminate crops before harvest or during storage. Among toxins that represent a real public health issue, those produced by Fusarium genus in cereals before harvest are of great importance since they are the most frequent in European productions. Among them, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) frequently contaminate maize. In recent years, numerous studies have investigated whether food processing techniques can be exploited to reduce the levels of these two mycotoxins, which would allow the identification and quantification of parameters affecting mycotoxin stability. The particularity of the popcorn process is that it associates heat treatment with a particular physical phenomenon (i.e., expansion). Three methods exist to implement the popcorn transformation process: hot air, hot oil, and microwaves, all of which are tested in this study. The results show that all popping modes significantly reduce FUM contents in both Mushroom and Butterfly types of popcorn. The mean initial contamination of 1351 µg/kg was reduced by 91% on average after popping. For DON, the reduction was less important despite a lower initial contamination than for FUM (560 µg/kg). Only the hot oil popping for the Mushroom type significantly reduced the contamination up to 78% compared to unpopped controls. Hot oil popping appears to provide the most important reduction for the two considered mycotoxins for both types of popcorn (−98% and −58% average reduction for FUM and DON, respectively). View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; fumonisins; popcorn; popping; mycotoxins reduction deoxynivalenol; fumonisins; popcorn; popping; mycotoxins reduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schambri, P.; Brunet, S.; Bailly, J.-D.; Kleiber, D.; Levasseur-Garcia, C. Effect of Popcorn (Zea mays var. everta) Popping Mode (Microwave, Hot Oil, and Hot Air) on Fumonisins and Deoxynivalenol Contamination Levels. Toxins 2021, 13, 486. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070486

AMA Style

Schambri P, Brunet S, Bailly J-D, Kleiber D, Levasseur-Garcia C. Effect of Popcorn (Zea mays var. everta) Popping Mode (Microwave, Hot Oil, and Hot Air) on Fumonisins and Deoxynivalenol Contamination Levels. Toxins. 2021; 13(7):486. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070486

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schambri, Pierre, Sophie Brunet, Jean-Denis Bailly, Didier Kleiber, and Cecile Levasseur-Garcia. 2021. "Effect of Popcorn (Zea mays var. everta) Popping Mode (Microwave, Hot Oil, and Hot Air) on Fumonisins and Deoxynivalenol Contamination Levels" Toxins 13, no. 7: 486. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13070486

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