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Communication

Mycotoxin Co-Occurrence in Milks and Exposure Estimation: A Pilot Study in São Paulo, Brazil

Department of Food Engineering, School of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Pirassununga CEP 13635-900, SP, Brazil
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Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 16 July 2021 / Accepted: 19 July 2021 / Published: 21 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxin Contamination and Food Safety)
The aim of this study was to conduct a first evaluation on the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) M1, B1, B2, G1 and G2; fumonisins (F) B1 and B2; deoxynivalenol (DON); de-epoxydeoxinivalenol (DOM-1); ochratoxin A (OTA); zearalenone (ZEN); α-zearalenol (α-ZEL); and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL) in 68 samples of fluid milk consumed in Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. The probable daily intake (PDI) was also calculated for each mycotoxin evaluated. Mycotoxins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Sixty-two (91.2%) samples contained at least one type of mycotoxin. AFM1 was found in 6 samples (8.8%), and none of them presented concentrations above the Brazilian maximum permitted level in milk (500 ng/L). Low levels of non-regulated mycotoxins DOM-1, OTA, FB1, FB2, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were found in 6 (8.8%), 17 (25%), 10 (14.7%), 3 (4.4%), 39 (57.4%) and 28 (41.2%) samples of milk, respectively. None of the PDIs calculated for the quantified mycotoxins were above recommended values, indicating low exposure through milk consumption in the area studied. However, 21 samples (30.9%) contained 2–4 types of mycotoxins, which warrants concern about the potential adverse effects of mycotoxin mixtures in milks. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; ochratoxin A; fumoniins; zearalenone; trichothecenes; fluid milk; occurrence; exposure assessment aflatoxins; ochratoxin A; fumoniins; zearalenone; trichothecenes; fluid milk; occurrence; exposure assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frey, M.; Rosim, R.; Oliveira, C. Mycotoxin Co-Occurrence in Milks and Exposure Estimation: A Pilot Study in São Paulo, Brazil. Toxins 2021, 13, 507. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080507

AMA Style

Frey M, Rosim R, Oliveira C. Mycotoxin Co-Occurrence in Milks and Exposure Estimation: A Pilot Study in São Paulo, Brazil. Toxins. 2021; 13(8):507. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080507

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frey, Matheus, Roice Rosim, and Carlos Oliveira. 2021. "Mycotoxin Co-Occurrence in Milks and Exposure Estimation: A Pilot Study in São Paulo, Brazil" Toxins 13, no. 8: 507. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080507

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