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Article

Mycotoxin Profile and Phylogeny of Pathogenic Alternaria Species Isolated from Symptomatic Tomato Plants in Lebanon

1
Laboratory of Mycology, Department of Plant Protection, Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 90-1965, 1202 Fanar, Lebanon
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, P.O. Box 446, 1200 Jounieh, Lebanon
3
Institute of Science of Food Production—ISPA, Research National Council—CNR, Via Amendola, 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
4
Department of Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Food Science Area, University of Valencia, Avenida Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 1 July 2021 / Revised: 16 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 22 July 2021
The tomato is one of the most consumed agri-food products in Lebanon. Several fungal pathogens, including Alternaria species, can infect tomato plants during the whole growing cycle. Alternaria infections cause severe production and economic losses in field and during storage. In addition, Alternaria species represent a serious toxicological risk since they are able to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, associated with different toxic activities on human and animal health. Several Alternaria species were detected on tomatoes, among which the most important are A. solani, A. alternata, and A. arborescens. A set of 49 Alternaria strains isolated from leaves and stems of diseased tomato plants were characterised by using a polyphasic approach. All strains were included in the recently defined phylogenetic Alternaria section and grouped in three well-separated sub-clades, namely A. alternata (24 out of 49), A. arborescens (12 out of 49), and A. mali morpho-species (12 out of 49). One strain showed high genetic similarity with an A.limoniasperae reference strain. Chemical analyses showed that most of the Alternaria strains, cultured on rice, were able to produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT) and tenuazonic acid (TA), with values up to 5634, 16,006, 5156, and 4507 mg kg−1, respectively. In addition, 66% of the strains were able to co-produce simultaneously the four mycotoxins investigated. The pathogenicity test carried out on 10 Alternaria strains, representative of phylogenetic sub-clades, revealed that they were all pathogenic on tomato fruits. No significant difference among strains was observed, although A. alternata and A. arborescens strains were slightly more aggressive than A. mali morpho-species strains. This paper reports new insights on mycotoxin profiles, genetic variability, and pathogenicity of Alternaria species on tomatoes. View Full-Text
Keywords: multilocus gene sequencing; toxigenic fungi; Alternaria alternata; Alternaria arborescens; Alternaria mali morpho-species multilocus gene sequencing; toxigenic fungi; Alternaria alternata; Alternaria arborescens; Alternaria mali morpho-species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Habib, W.; Masiello, M.; El Ghorayeb, R.; Gerges, E.; Susca, A.; Meca, G.; Quiles, J.M.; Logrieco, A.F.; Moretti, A. Mycotoxin Profile and Phylogeny of Pathogenic Alternaria Species Isolated from Symptomatic Tomato Plants in Lebanon. Toxins 2021, 13, 513. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080513

AMA Style

Habib W, Masiello M, El Ghorayeb R, Gerges E, Susca A, Meca G, Quiles JM, Logrieco AF, Moretti A. Mycotoxin Profile and Phylogeny of Pathogenic Alternaria Species Isolated from Symptomatic Tomato Plants in Lebanon. Toxins. 2021; 13(8):513. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Habib, Wassim, Mario Masiello, Romy El Ghorayeb, Elvis Gerges, Antonia Susca, Giuseppe Meca, Juan M. Quiles, Antonio F. Logrieco, and Antonio Moretti. 2021. "Mycotoxin Profile and Phylogeny of Pathogenic Alternaria Species Isolated from Symptomatic Tomato Plants in Lebanon" Toxins 13, no. 8: 513. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080513

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