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Review

Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND): Virulence, Pathogenesis and Mitigation Strategies in Shrimp Aquaculture

1
Aquatic Environmental Biotechnology and Nanotechnology (AEBN) Division, ICAR-Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI), Barrackpore 700120, India
2
Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Department of Animal Sciences and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share senior authorship.
Received: 5 May 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
Shrimp, as a high-protein animal food commodity, are one of the fastest growing food producing sectors in the world. It has emerged as a highly traded seafood product, currently exceeding 8 MT of high value. However, disease outbreaks, which are considered as the primary cause of production loss in shrimp farming, have moved to the forefront in recent years and brought socio-economic and environmental unsustainability to the shrimp aquaculture industry. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), caused by Vibrio spp., is a relatively new farmed penaeid shrimp bacterial disease. The shrimp production in AHPND affected regions has dropped to ~60%, and the disease has caused a global loss of USD 43 billion to the shrimp farming industry. The conventional approaches, such as antibiotics and disinfectants, often applied for the mitigation or cure of AHPND, have had limited success. Additionally, their usage has been associated with alteration of host gut microbiota and immunity and development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. For example, the Mexico AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strain (13-306D/4 and 13-511/A1) were reported to carry tetB gene coding for tetracycline resistance gene, and V. campbellii from China was found to carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes. As a consequence, there is an urgent need to thoroughly understand the virulence mechanism of AHPND-causing Vibrio spp. and develop novel management strategies to control AHPND in shrimp aquaculture, that will be crucially important to ensure food security in the future and offer economic stability to farmers. In this review, the most important findings of AHPND are highlighted, discussed and put in perspective, and some directions for future research are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: shrimp aquaculture; AHPND; V. parahaemolyticus; virulence mechanism; management strategies shrimp aquaculture; AHPND; V. parahaemolyticus; virulence mechanism; management strategies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, V.; Roy, S.; Behera, B.K.; Bossier, P.; Das, B.K. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND): Virulence, Pathogenesis and Mitigation Strategies in Shrimp Aquaculture. Toxins 2021, 13, 524. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080524

AMA Style

Kumar V, Roy S, Behera BK, Bossier P, Das BK. Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND): Virulence, Pathogenesis and Mitigation Strategies in Shrimp Aquaculture. Toxins. 2021; 13(8):524. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080524

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumar, Vikash, Suvra Roy, Bijay K. Behera, Peter Bossier, and Basanta K. Das 2021. "Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND): Virulence, Pathogenesis and Mitigation Strategies in Shrimp Aquaculture" Toxins 13, no. 8: 524. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080524

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