Next Article in Journal
Evidence for Resistance to Coagulotoxic Effects of Australian Elapid Snake Venoms by Sympatric Prey (Blue Tongue Skinks) but Not by Predators (Monitor Lizards)
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Inner Exposure of Horses to Zearalenone (ZEN), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Their Metabolites in Relation to Colic and Health-Related Clinical-Chemical Traits
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Cyanobacterial and Algal Extracts—Microcystin and Retinoic Acid Content
Article

Changes in Growth, Photosynthesis Performance, Pigments, and Toxin Contents of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria after Exposure to Macroalgal Allelochemicals

1
Division of Marine Ecosystems Functioning, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Piłsudskiego 46, P-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
2
Division of Marine Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Piłsudskiego 46, P-81-378 Gdynia, Poland
3
Department of Marine Ecology, Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstańców Warszawy 55, P-81-712 Sopot, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 10 August 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
Macroalgae can directly restrict the growth of various phytoplankton species by releasing allelopathic compounds; therefore, considerable attention should be paid to the allelopathic potential of these organisms against harmful and bloom-forming cyanobacteria. The main aim of this study was to demonstrate for the first time the allelopathic activity of Ulva intestinalis on the growth, the fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII), the chlorophyll a (Chl a) and carotenoid (Car) content, and the microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenol content of three bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon sp., Nodularia spumigena, and Nostoc sp. We found both negative and positive allelopathic effects of U. intestinalis on tested cyanobacteria. The study clearly showed that the addition of the filtrate of U. intestinalis significantly inhibited growth, decreased pigment content and Fv/Fm and ΦPSII values of N. spumigena and Nostoc sp., and stimulated Aphanizomenon sp. The addition of different concentrations of aqueous extract also stimulated the cyanobacterial growth. It was also shown that the addition of extract obtained from U. intestinalis caused a significant decrease in the MC-LR content in Nostoc sp. cells. Moreover, it the phenol content in N. spumigena cells was increased. On the other hand, the cell-specific phenol content for Aphanizomenon sp. decreased due to the addition of the filtrate. In this work, we demonstrated that the allelopathic effect of U. intestinalis depends on the target species’ identity as well as the type of allelopathic method used. The study of the allelopathic Baltic macroalgae may help to identify their possible role as a significant biological factor influencing harmful cyanobacterial blooms in brackish ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: allelopathy; green algae; macroalgae; secondary metabolites; toxic cyanobacteria allelopathy; green algae; macroalgae; secondary metabolites; toxic cyanobacteria
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Budzałek, G.; Śliwińska-Wilczewska, S.; Klin, M.; Wiśniewska, K.; Latała, A.; Wiktor, J.M. Changes in Growth, Photosynthesis Performance, Pigments, and Toxin Contents of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria after Exposure to Macroalgal Allelochemicals. Toxins 2021, 13, 589. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080589

AMA Style

Budzałek G, Śliwińska-Wilczewska S, Klin M, Wiśniewska K, Latała A, Wiktor JM. Changes in Growth, Photosynthesis Performance, Pigments, and Toxin Contents of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria after Exposure to Macroalgal Allelochemicals. Toxins. 2021; 13(8):589. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080589

Chicago/Turabian Style

Budzałek, Gracjana, Sylwia Śliwińska-Wilczewska, Marek Klin, Kinga Wiśniewska, Adam Latała, and Józef M. Wiktor 2021. "Changes in Growth, Photosynthesis Performance, Pigments, and Toxin Contents of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria after Exposure to Macroalgal Allelochemicals" Toxins 13, no. 8: 589. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080589

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop