Fumonisins are a kind of mycotoxin that has harmful influence on the health of humans and animals. Although some research studies associated with fumonisins have been reported, the regulatory limits of fumonisins are imperfect, and the effects of fumonisins on fecal bacterial flora of mice have not been suggested. In this study, in order to investigate the effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on fecal bacterial flora, BALB/c mice were randomly divided into seven groups, which were fed intragastrically with 0 mg/kg, 0.018 mg/kg, 0.054 mg/kg, 0.162 mg/kg, 0.486 mg/kg, 1.458 mg/kg and 4.374 mg/kg of FB1 solutions, once a day for 8 weeks. Subsequently, feces were collected for analysis of microflora. The V3-V4 16S rRNA of fecal bacterial flora was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results revealed that fecal bacterial flora of mice treated with FB1 presented high diversity. Additionally, the composition of fecal bacterial flora of FB1 exposure groups showed marked differences from that of the control group, especially for the genus types including Alloprevotella, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Parabacteroides and phylum types including Cyanobacteria. In conclusion, our data indicate that FB1 alters the diversity and composition of fecal microbiota in mice. Moreover, the minimum dose of FB1 exposure also causes changes in fecal microbiota to some extent. This study is the first to focus on the dose-related effect of FB1 exposure on fecal microbiota in rodent animals and gives references to the regulatory doses of fumonisins for better protection of human and animal health.
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