Next Article in Journal
Solanum nigrum Extract and Solasonine Affected Hemolymph Metabolites and Ultrastructure of the Fat Body and the Midgut in Galleria mellonella
Previous Article in Journal
New Cytoplasmic Virus-Like Elements (VLEs) in the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization of New Allergens from the Venom of the European Paper Wasp Polistes dominula

Venom Immunotherapy: From Proteins to Product to Patient Protection

Allergy Therapeutics (UK) Ltd., Worthing BN14 8SA, UK
Bencard Allergie GmBH, 80804 Munich, Germany
Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), School of Medicine and Helmholtz Center Munich, Technical University of Munich, 85764 Munich, Germany
Experimental Dermatology and Allergy Research Group, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, 35390 Giessen, Germany
Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zürich, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland
Center for Rhinology and Allergology, 65183 Wiesbaden, Germany
Chesapeake Clinical Research, Baltimore, MA 21236-5992, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2021 / Revised: 20 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 1 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom Allergy: General Concepts, Allergens, Diagnosis and Treatment)
In this review, we outline and reflect on the important differences between allergen-specific immunotherapy for inhalant allergies (i.e., aeroallergens) and venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT), with a special focus on Venomil® Bee and Wasp. Venomil® is provided as a freeze-dried extract and a diluent to prepare a solution for injection for the treatment of patients with IgE-mediated allergies to bee and/or wasp venom and for evaluating the degree of sensitivity in a skin test. While the materials that make up the product have not changed, the suppliers of raw materials have changed over the years. Here, we consolidate relevant historical safety and efficacy studies that used products from shared manufacture supply profiles, i.e., products from Bayer or Hollister–Stier. We also consider the characterization and standardization of venom marker allergens, providing insights into manufacturing controls that have produced stable and consistent quality profiles over many years. Quality differences between products and their impacts on treatment outcomes have been a current topic of discussion and further research. Finally, we review the considerations surrounding the choice of depot adjuvant most suitable to augmenting VIT. View Full-Text
Keywords: venom; VIT; wasp venom; honeybee venom; allergy; Hymenoptera; sensitization; adjuvant venom; VIT; wasp venom; honeybee venom; allergy; Hymenoptera; sensitization; adjuvant
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Feindor, M.; Heath, M.D.; Hewings, S.J.; Carreno Velazquez, T.L.; Blank, S.; Grosch, J.; Jakob, T.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Klimek, L.; Golden, D.B.K.; Skinner, M.A.; Kramer, M.F. Venom Immunotherapy: From Proteins to Product to Patient Protection. Toxins 2021, 13, 616.

AMA Style

Feindor M, Heath MD, Hewings SJ, Carreno Velazquez TL, Blank S, Grosch J, Jakob T, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Klimek L, Golden DBK, Skinner MA, Kramer MF. Venom Immunotherapy: From Proteins to Product to Patient Protection. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):616.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Feindor, Martin, Matthew D. Heath, Simon J. Hewings, Thalia L. Carreno Velazquez, Simon Blank, Johannes Grosch, Thilo Jakob, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Ludger Klimek, David B.K. Golden, Murray A. Skinner, and Matthias F. Kramer 2021. "Venom Immunotherapy: From Proteins to Product to Patient Protection" Toxins 13, no. 9: 616.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop