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Article

Is Toxin-Producing Planktothrix sp. an Emerging Species in Lake Constance?

1
Microbial Ecology and Limnic Microbiology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
2
Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
3
Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared 1st authorship.
Received: 22 July 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
Recurring blooms of filamentous, red-pigmented and toxin-producing cyanobacteria Planktothrix rubescens have been reported in numerous deep and stratified prealpine lakes, with the exception of Lake Constance. In a 2019 and 2020 Lake Constance field campaign, we collected samples from a distinct red-pigmented biomass maximum below the chlorophyll-a maximum, which was determined using fluorescence probe measurements at depths between 18 and 20 m. Here, we report the characterization of these deep water red pigment maxima (DRM) as cyanobacterial blooms. Using 16S rRNA gene-amplicon sequencing, we found evidence that the blooms were, indeed, contributed by Planktothrix spp., although phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus taxa constituted most of the biomass (>96% relative read abundance) of the cyanobacterial DRM community. Through UPLC–MS/MS, we also detected toxic microcystins (MCs) in the DRM in the individual sampling days at concentrations of ≤1.5 ng/L. Subsequently, we reevaluated the fluorescence probe measurements collected over the past decade and found that, in the summer, DRM have been present in Lake Constance, at least since 2009. Our study highlights the need for a continuous monitoring program also targeting the cyanobacterial DRM in Lake Constance, and for future studies on the competition of the different cyanobacterial taxa. Future studies will address the potential community composition changes in response to the climate change driven physiochemical and biological parameters of the lake. View Full-Text
Keywords: Planktothrix; Synechococcus; microcystins; temperate lakes Planktothrix; Synechococcus; microcystins; temperate lakes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fournier, C.; Riehle, E.; Dietrich, D.R.; Schleheck, D. Is Toxin-Producing Planktothrix sp. an Emerging Species in Lake Constance? Toxins 2021, 13, 666. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090666

AMA Style

Fournier C, Riehle E, Dietrich DR, Schleheck D. Is Toxin-Producing Planktothrix sp. an Emerging Species in Lake Constance? Toxins. 2021; 13(9):666. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090666

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fournier, Corentin, Eva Riehle, Daniel R. Dietrich, and David Schleheck. 2021. "Is Toxin-Producing Planktothrix sp. an Emerging Species in Lake Constance?" Toxins 13, no. 9: 666. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13090666

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