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Article

Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples

1
Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
2
Biology Department, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
3
USDA-ARS, Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
4
Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
5
Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
6
Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 1 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that 3-keto-4-deoxynivalenol was the major by-product of DON. Via 16S rRNA sequencing, these mixed cultures, including mostly members of the genera Acinetobacter, Leadbetterella, and Gemmata, were revealed. Incubation of one of these mixed cultures with wheat samples naturally contaminated with 7.1 μg/mL DON indicated nearly complete conversion of DON to the less toxic 3-epimer-DON (3-epi-DON). Our work extends previous studies that have demonstrated the potential for bioprospecting for microorganisms from the environment to remediate or modify mycotoxins for commercial applications, such as the reduction of mycotoxins in fuel ethanol co-products. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; bioprospecting; detoxification; Fusarium mycotoxin; trichothecene; deoxynivalenol; bioprospecting; detoxification; Fusarium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, N.M.; McMaster, N.; Gantulga, D.; Soyars, C.; McCormick, S.P.; Knott, K.; Senger, R.S.; Schmale, D.G. Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples. Toxins 2017, 9, 141. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins9040141

AMA Style

Wilson NM, McMaster N, Gantulga D, Soyars C, McCormick SP, Knott K, Senger RS, Schmale DG. Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples. Toxins. 2017; 9(4):141. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins9040141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilson, Nina M., Nicole McMaster, Dash Gantulga, Cara Soyars, Susan P. McCormick, Ken Knott, Ryan S. Senger, and David G. Schmale 2017. "Modification of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Using Microorganisms Isolated from Environmental Samples" Toxins 9, no. 4: 141. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins9040141

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